Essays Citations

Citing Music Sources in Your Essay and Bibliography - the 2007 version

[This is an expanded version of a document originating from Western's Don Wright Faculty of Music-- the former Music History Department - now part of the Department of Music Research and Composition.]

Please BEWARE - the formatting is NOT OPTIMAL in this html document. I advise consulting the PDF version, for greater accuracy of spacing, etc. LRP.

INDEX, text-based citations:

INDEX, musical citations:

Be CONSISTENT!

Many students have probably not had much experience writing essays on music, a kind of writing that has its own stylistic conventions. Humanistic writing on music usually follows the Turabian guide (which is based on The Chicago Manual of Style), and Turabian will be followed in most of the history courses offered at Western. No matter what style guide is followed, it is important to be consistent and clear, so that the reader can easily track down your references.

Spell-out notes, keys and chords

When writing a music history essay, avoid using abbreviations and symbols:

middle C, E, G-natural, A-flat, F-sharp
the keys of F-sharp minor and E-flat major
the triad D-F-sharp-A

Use of hyphen in adjectival forms:

noun:adjective:
twentieth centurytwentieth-century music
quarter notequarter-note movement
eighth noteeighth-note triplet
sixteenth notesixteenth-note figure
thirty-second notethirty-second-note passage

Use of italics

In the days of typewriters, underlining was an instruction to the typesetter to set a particular passage in italics. With modern software, we now use italics.

Italicize all foreign words unless they are particularly familar in English usage:

tempo, cello, symphony

BUT

tempi, celli, opéra comique

And,

tempo, tempos, but tempi
libretto, librettos, but libretti
crescendo, crescendos, but crescendi

Also,

allegro, andante, cantus firmus, recitative, Kappellmeister

[Beware of "inventing" your own terms; there is NO such verb as "to crescendo"!]

Titles of musical compositions:

a) Titles of operas, oratorios, motets, tone poems, and other long musical compositions are italicized:

Orfeo

The Magic Flute

Zauberflöte

Death and Transfiguration

Messiah

b) Titles of songs and other short compositions are given in quotation marks:

"Jesu Joy of Man's Desiring"

"Sweet Surrender"


c)
Titles consisting of generic terms are capitalized but not italicized or put in quotation marks:

Brahms's Ballade op. 118 no. 3

Schubert's Piano Sonata in B-flat Major

Chopin's Waltz in C-sharp Minor


d)
Movement titles are generally capitalized; individual movements from larger works are placed within quotation marks:

Andante from Mozart's Symphony in G Minor

Kyrie from Beethoven's Missa Solemnis

"On a rainy night" from Beckwith's Lyrics of the T'ang Dynasty


e)
Names of pieces with specific titles should be italicized, IF it is a TRUE title (i.e., one that the composer has given to the work):

Schumann's Scenes from Childhood

Beethoven Symphony No. 3 (Eroica)

the Eroica Symphony by Beethoven


f)
Names of individual movements from larger compositions (including choral works), when such movements are referred to by title, are placed in quotation marks:

"Contentedness" from Schumann's Scenes from Childhood

"And He Shall Purify..." from Handel's Messiah

"Wohin" from Die Schöne Müllerin

"Air with Variations" (The Harmonious Blacksmith) from Handel's Suite no. 5 in E Major

Title for a musical example:

It is important to identify clearly the musical examples you choose to illustrate your essay. You should provide all the necessary details: composer, title, movement (if appropriate) and measure numbers:

Ex. 1. Mozart, Symphony no. 41 ("Jupiter") K. 551, I, mm. 17-23

In the text of the essay, refer to this example as Ex.1

CITATION STYLE:

FOOTNOTE [F] vs. BIBLIOGRAPHY [B]

The format of footnotes and bibliographic citations differs.

A footnote is like a sentence, with each major item (author, title, facts of publication) separated by a comma.

A bibliographic citation, which begins at the left margin, with all subsequent lines indented (known as a “hanging indent”), separates major elements with a period.

[You will notice that all FOOTNOTE examples are numbered consecutively, as they would be in an essay.] NOTE that all items in a Bibliography are normally listed alphabetically–by the author's surname.

If there is no author's name for an item, list that one item by its title (alphabetically) within the list - please see the Sample Bibliography on page 14 of this document.

The following examples conform to the 7th edition (2007) of Turabian.

[Return to Index]

ARTICLES -- Journals, Magazines, Newspapers, Periodicals, Serials

The seventh edition of the Turabian guide offers different formats for magazine and journal citations, which can be problematic. Upon examining her citations (17.2-17.4), it appears that magazines and newspapers tend to offer one-page articles, while journal articles cover several pages. If you are writing a scholarly paper, choose the citation example for journals 17.2 – which requires you to specify the pagination of the entire article for your bibliography. [The footnote examples below refer to a single page, as is often the case for footnotes.]

      1. Richard Semmens, “La Furstemberg and St. Martin’s Lane: Purcell’s French Odyssey.” Music & Letters  78 (1997): 347. [F]

Semmens, Richard. “La Furstemberg and St. Martin’s Lane: Purcell’s French Odyssey.” Music & Letters 78 (1997): 337-48. [B]

      2. Stephen McClatchie, "The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection at the University of Western Ontario," Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 387. [F]

McClatchie, Stephen. "The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection at the University of Western Ontario." Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 385-406.[B].

[Return to Index]

BOOKS

      3. Susan McClary, Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991), 197. [F]

McClary, Susan. Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press, 1991. [B]

      4. Janet R. Barrett, Claire W. McCoy and Kari K. Veblen, Sound ways of knowing : music in theinterdisciplinary curriculum (New York : Schirmer Books ; London : Prentice Hall International, 1997), 114-16. [F]

Barrett, Janet R. , Claire W. McCoy and Kari K. Veblen. Sound ways of knowing : music in the interdisciplinary curriculum. New York : Schirmer Books ; London : Prentice Hall International, 1997. [B]

[Return to Index]

BOOK REVIEWS

Essentially, you are citing a journal article, with the added complication of including the title of the reviewed book. Remember that underlining a title = italics, so BOTH the title of the journal and the title of the book must be italicized.

      5. Robert Carl, review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality, by Susan McClary, in Notes:  Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 48 (June 1992): 1289. [F]

Carl, Robert. Review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality, by Susan McClary Notes: QuarterlyJournal of the Music Library Association48 (June 1992): 1288-1291. [B]

[Return to Index]

CITING FROM A SECONDARY SOURCE -- or -- "I could not consult the 'original'"

Occasionally, one is forced to cite an entry which refers to another important work. It may be impossible to consult the "original" work, if the original is rare, signed-out, or otherwise difficult to locate. The secondary work may provide a portion of the original work, or may provide a necessary translation; you will cite the original as contained in the secondary source in the following manner:

      6. Robert Schumann, "Kennst du das Land," Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2, edited by Max Friedlaender
(Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?), 212; in Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca
(New York: Norton, 1988), 338. [F]

Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land." Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. In Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca, 338-342.  New York: Norton, 1988. [B]

OR

      7. Paul Dukas, "Claude Debussy et Paul Dukas," La Revue Musical, Special Number:
"La Jeunesse de Debussy
" (May, 1926); cited by Jean Roy, trans. Denis Ogan, in accompanying
booklet to Debussy Melodies, performed by various singers with Dalton Baldwin, piano, EMI Classics,
CDM 7640962, 1980, 8. Compact disc. [UWO MCD 7048] [F]

Dukas, Paul. "Claude Debussy et Paul Dukas." La Revue Musical, Special Number: "LaJeuness de Debussy" (May, 1926). Cited by Jean Roy, trans. Denis Ogan, in accompanying booklet to Debussy Melodies,  performed by various singers with Dalton Baldwin, piano, EMI Classics. CDM 7640962, 1980, 8-10.  Compact disc. [UWO MCD7048] [B]

[Return to Index]

DICTIONARIES / ENCYCLOPAEDIAS (four different citation styles--choose ONE)

[FYI--S.v. is the abbreviation for a Latin term, sub verbo, or sub voce, meaning "under the word."]

      8. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd rev. ed., 1964, s.v. "ornamentation." [F]

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd rev. ed., 1964. S.v. "Ornamentation." [B]

*** OR ***

      9. The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, 1986, s.v. "electro-acoustic music," by Jon H. Appleton. [F]


Subsequent short-form entries (of Ex. 9 above) can be abbreviated to:

      10. Appleton, "electro-acoustic music" in New Harvard Dictionary.[F]

The New Harvard Dictionary of Music. 1986. S.v. "electro-acoustic music" by Jon H. . Appleton. [B]


*** OR ***

Despite its name, TheNew Grove Dictionary is an encyclopaedia. The articles are written by experts, and signed; some articles have been extracted and published as individual books. While the preceding examples are all correct, some prefer the following citation format, which resembles the format for citing journal articles:

      11. Michael F. Robinson, "Auletta, Pietro," in Stanley Sadie, ed., New Grove Dictionary
of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 1980), I: 698. [F]

Robinson, Michael F. "Auletta, Pietro." Stanley Sadie, ed., New Grove Dictionary of Music andMusicians. London: Macmillan, 1980. I: 697-698. [B]

[Return to Index]

The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is also available online. Please be aware that the citation examples given in Grove Music Online reflect British practice, and as such are incorrect for those North Americans using either the Chicago Manual of Style or Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.

Please also bear in mind that The New Grove is a special case: while “Dictionary” may be part of its title, it is NOT a generic dictionary. References to “dictionaries” in style manuals simply do not apply to the various incarnations of the Grove dictionaries!

      12. Grove Music Online, s.v. "Schafer, R. Murray" (by Stephen Adams), http://www.grovemusic.com/
(accessed November 19, 2007). [F]

Adams, Stephen. S.v. "Schafer, R. Murray." Grove Music Online. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed
November 19, 2007). [B]

ESSAYS & FESTSCHRIFTEN

Collected Essays:

      13. Gary C. Thomas, "Was George Frideric Handel gay? : on closet questions and cultural politics,"
in Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology, eds. Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, Gary C. Thomas (New York: Routledge, 1994), 167. [F]

Thomas, Gary C. "Was George Frideric Handel gay? : on closet questions and cultural politics." In Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology, eds. Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, Gary C. Thomas,155-203. New York: Routledge, 1994. [B]

Festschrift, citing entire volume, with editor as 'author':

      14. David Hunter, ed., Music Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel
(Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science,
1994), 111. [F]

Hunter, David, ed. Music Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1994. [B]

Festschrift, citing a single essay by one author:

      15. Calvin Elliker, "The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly," in Music
Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel, ed. David Hunter.
(Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science,
1994), 191. [F]

Elliker, Calvin. "The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly." In MusicPublishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel, edited by David Hunter. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1994: 189-203. [B]

[Return to Index]

LETTERS, published

      16. Gustav Mahler to Justine Mahler, July 31, 1897, in The Mahler Family Letters, ed. Stephen
McClatchie (New York: Oxford, 2006), 320. [F]

Mahler, Gustav. Gustav to Justine Mahler, July 31, 1897. In The Mahler Family Letters, edited by Stephen McClatchie. New York: Oxford, 2006. [B]

LETTERS, unpublished

     17. César Cui to “Mon cher editeur” [Monsieur Heugel], November 16, [18]91, Gift of the Wilhelmina
McIntosh Book Fund of the Faculty of Music, The Opera Collection, MZ590, Music Library, University
of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Cui, César. Cui to “Mon cher editeur” [Monsieur Heugel], November 16, [18]91. Gift of the Wilhelmina McIntosh Book Fund of the Faculty of Music. The Opera Collection, MZ590. Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

MUSIC, PRINTED -- separate edition

      18. Louise Talma, Pastoral Prelude (Boston: Carl Fischer, 1952), 5. [F]

Talma, Louise. Pastoral Prelude. Boston: Carl Fischer, 1952. [B]

 

      19. Claude Debussy, "Le vent dans la plaine," Préludes, ed. Pierre Marchand (Paris: Durand, ca.
1910), 8. [F]

Debussy, Claude. "Le vent dans la plaine," Préludes. Edited by Pierre Marchand. Paris: Durand, ca.1910. [B]

OR:

      20. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, The Magic Flute, original text by Emanuel Schikaneder and Carl
Giesecke, English version by Ruth and Thomas Martin (New York: G. Schirmer, 1951), 157. [F]

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. The Magic Flute. Original text by Emanuel Schikaneder and Carl Giesecke. English version by Ruth and Thomas Martin. New York: G. Schirmer, 1951. [B]

[Return to Index]

MUSIC, PRINTED -- issued as part of an Anthology, or Collected Work

      21. Robert Schumann, "Kennst du das Land," Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2, edited by Max Friedlaender
(Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?), 213.[F]

Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land," Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. [B]

OR:

      22. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Die Zauberflöte, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart neue
Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke
, series 2, workgroup 5, vol. 19 (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1970), 205. [F]

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Die Zauberflöte. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart neue Ausgabesämtlicher Werke, series 2, workgroup 5, vol. 19. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1970. [B]

OR:

      23. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272, in Twenty-one Concert Arias forSoprano,
v.1 (New York: G. Schirmer, 1952), 15.[F]

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272. In Twenty-one Concert Arias for Soprano, v.1, 14-34.  New York: G. Schirmer, 1952. [B]

OR:

      24. Robert Schumann, "Kennst du das Land," in Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed.
Claude V. Palisca (New York: Norton, 1988), 338.[F]

Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land." In Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V.
Palisca, 338-342. New York: Norton, 1988. [B]

OR:

      25. Undine Smith Moore, “Mother to Son,” in Contemporary Anthology of Music by Women, ed. James R. Briscoe (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997), 224-28. [F]

Moore, Undine Smith. “Mother to Son.” In Contemporary Anthology of Music by Women, 224-28. Edited by James R. Briscoe. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997. [B]

MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS - ORIGINAL

      26. Gustav Mahler, "Symphony No. 1," copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-1889, CDN-Lu OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. [F]

Mahler, Gustav. "Symphony No.1." Copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-89, CDN-Lu
OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. [B]

MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS- FACSIMILE REPRODUCTIONS

      27. Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana di Firenze. 15th century
music manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F.
Alberto Gallo. (Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992), f. 14. [F]

Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana DI Firenze. 15th century music
manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F. Alberto
Gallo. Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992. [B]

MUSIC, COMMERCIALLY-RECORDED -- vinyl, cassettes, DATs, CDs, etc.

You will notice that several of the following examples do not include a date. While CDs frequently have a date of manufacture on the label, vinyl recordings often do not include this information. Rather than provide incorrect information, it is preferable to omit the date. The manufacturer's name and label number are sufficient to identify a recording. You may choose to include the Library's call number for an item, where applicable.

      28. Gustav Mahler, Symphony no. 1 in D Major (Titan), Columbia Symphony Orchestra conducted
by Bruno Walter (Columbia ML 5794), vinyl recording. [F]

Mahler, Gustav. Symphony no. 1 in D Major (Titan), Columbia Symphony Orchestra conducted by Bruno Walter. Columbia ML 5794. Vinyl recording. [B]

OR:

      29. Gustav Mahler, Symphony no.1 in D Major, Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard
Bernstein, Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989, compact disc. [UWO MCD 6866] [F]

Mahler, Gustav. Symphony no.1 in D Major, Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard Bernstein.
Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 6866] [B]

OR:

 

     30. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272. In Konzert-Arien sung by Gundula Janowitz
with the Wiener Symphoniker conducted by Wilfried Boettcher, Deutsche Grammophon 449 723-2.,
recorded 1966, reissued 1966. Compact disc. [UWO MCD 11121] [F]

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. "Ah, lo previdi!" K. 272. In Konzert-Arien sung by Gundula Janowitz with the Wiener Symphoniker conducted by Wilfried Boettcher. Deutsche Grammophon 449 723-2. Recorded1966, reissued 1996. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 11121] [B]

[Return to Index]

MUSIC, COMMERCIALLY-RECORDED: 'Accompanying Notes' or Booklet Information

The booklets which accompany CDs, the jackets/sleeves of vinyl LPs, and other "inserts" are legitimate sources of information, especially when the author's name is provided. Generally speaking, "signed" works are considered to be more reliable and scholarly than unsigned works. Again, the call number is optional. See also example no. 5 (above), which deals with a translated text.

      31. Humphrey Searle, "Anton Webern" in accompanying booklet, Webern: CompleteWorks Opp. 1-31 performed by the Juilliard String Quartet and the London Sinfonietta conducted by Pierre Boulez, SONY Classical S3K 45845, 1991, compact disc. [UWO MCD 6153] [F]

Searle, Humphrey. "Anton Webern" essay in accompanying booklet, Webern: Complete WorksOpp. 1-31 performed by the Juilliard String Quartet and the London Sinfonietta conducted by Pierre Boulez. SONY Classical S3K 45845, 1991. Compact disc. [UWO MCD 6153] [B]

[Return to Index]

OBITUARIES

Citing an obituary in your essay? Follow the format for ARTICLES (above). It makes no difference whether the obituary comes from a newspaper or a journal, so long as you provide the full pagination.[Return to Index]

REPRINT EDITIONS - BOOKS

Works of special significance are often reprinted. One must give details of both the original and the reprint editions as shown by the following examples.

      32. Allen Forte, The Compositional Matrix (Baldwin, N.Y.: Music Teachers National Association, 1961;
reprint, New York: Da Capo, 1971), 35-39 (page citations are to the reprint edition). [F]

Forte, Allen. The Compositonal Matrix. Baldwin, NY: Music Teachers National Association, 1961. Reprint: New York: Da Capo, 1971. [B]

REPRINT EDITIONS - SCORES

Many important music manuscripts have been made available in reproduction editions (see MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS - FACSIMILE REPRODUCTIONS above); important (or otherwise interesting) editions of early published music have also been reprinted, and are of interest to performers and scholars alike.

      33. William Boyce, Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatason various subjects. (London: I. Walsh, [1745]; reprint, Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d.), 8-9 (page citations are to the reprint edition). [F]

Boyce, William. Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatas on varioussubjects. London: I. Walsh, [1745]. Reprint: Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d.. [B]

THESES AND DISSERTATIONS

These are technically unpublished works, written to fulfill degree requirements at a particular institution.

A thesis is written in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Masters degree:

      34. Anthony Strangis, "Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America." (MM thesis,
University of Western Ontario, 1987), 179. [F]

Strangis, Anthony. "Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America." MM thesis, University of Western Ontario, 1987. [B]

A dissertation is written for a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy ) degree:

      35. Alison Stonehouse, "Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800." (PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997), 133. [F]

Stonehouse, Alison. "Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800." PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997. [B]

[Return to Index]

TRANSLATIONS

See also example no. 7 above, which cites a translated text as given in a CD booklet.

      36. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Essay on the true art of playing keyboard instruments, trans. and edited by William J. Mitchell (New York : W. W. Norton, [1949]), 97. [F]

Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel. Essay on the true art of playing keyboard instruments. Translated and edited by William J. Mitchell. New York: Norton, [1949]. [B]

[Return to Index]

VIDEO RECORDINGS

      37. Richard Strauss, Salome, Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall, 105 min., Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2, 1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26] [F]

Strauss, Richard. Salome, Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall. 105 min. Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2,1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26] [B]

[Return to Index]

CITING ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS [WWW, CD-ROMS, email]

Citing electronic documents and information differs somewhat from citation formats for print materials. You still require the same basic information:

  • author -- this can be a person, a company, a library
  • responsibility -- (Photographer) or (Painter) or ??
  • date -- of an art work, or date of copyright, or update
  • title -- title of the web-page, CD-ROM index or database
  • nature -- [Photograph] [Image of oil painting]
  • format -- [CD-ROM] or [Online] or [Electronic] or [Internet]
  • publisher -- data provider/company
  • identifier -- database identifier/accession number of article
  • date -- date you viewed/consulted the information

The date may be found on a CD-ROM disc, but when the CD-ROM is networked, you do not have the opportunity to see the actual disc. You may see a version number or copyright date as you log-in to a database or networked CD-ROM. Alternately, you may cite the date you accessed the product or service. The latest edition of Turabian does not require an "access date," however all other style guides do require this information.

Certain databases give accession numbers (e.g. ERIC), and those accession numbers should be included in your bibliographic citation. Essentially, you should provide sufficient information so that someone reading your essay can find the same information/site--which means that you should include the complete URL (beginning with: http://...) if you are citing a WWW-site. Given the "fugitive nature: of information on the WWW, if you are engaged in writing a thesis or dissertation, it would be wise to PRINT a copy of any needed web-document, and physically include it in your work (as an Appendix or other type of example).

Cite ONLY those electronic sources which are full-text or which provide other useful information. Indexing tools which provide citations only, such as the Music Index (print version), are not cited; do not cite electronic indexes, either -- unless they provide full-text articles!

FULL-TEXT ARTICLE, originally published in print form

If you are able to consult the print version of the article, then you can use the less-complicated citation format for ARTICLES (above). Electronic full-text articles may provide the pagination of the original, but rarely format the document with the original "page breaks", which has implications for citation format (meaning that you should count the number of paragraphs, and then specify them, by number).

      38. Linda Hutcheon and Michael Hutcheon, "Opera and national identity: new Canadian opera,"
Canadian Theatre Review
(Fall 1998): 5-8, Canadian Business and Current Affairs: par. 12, online, available: Silver Platter WebSPIRS, [database online, UWO], AN: 4413119, accessed 1999, December 12. [F]

Hutcheon, Linda and Michael Hutcheon. "Opera and national identity: new Canadian opera." Canadian Theatre Review (Fall, 1998): 5-8. Canadian Business and Current Affairs [database online, UWO], AN: 4413119. Accessed 1999, December 12.[B]

      39. Joanne Close, "A case for arts education," Teach Magazine (Nov/Dec 1997), 26-29, para. 4, online, Canadian Business and Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO], AN 3701127, accessed 2000, January 5. [F]

Close, Joanne. "A case for arts education." Teach Magazine (Nov/DEC 1997): 26-29, CanadianBusiness and Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO], AN 3701127. Accessed January 5, 2000. [B]

      40. Stephen McClatchie, “The 1889 Version of Mahler's First Symphony: A New Manuscript Source,”19th-Century Music  20 (Autumn, 1996): 102-3, http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0148-2076%28199623%2920%3A2%3C99%3AT1VOMF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C
(accessed November 21, 2007). [F]

McClatchie, Stephen. "The 1889 Version of Mahler's First Symphony: A New Manuscript Source." 19th-CenturyMusic 20 (Autumn, 1996): 99-124. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0148-2076%28199623%2920%3A2%3C99%3AT1VOMF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C
(accessed November 21, 2007). [B]

FULL-TEXT ARTICLE, originally published in French, translation available on WWW

      41. Louise Lamothe, "Who remembers Disc-O-Logue?" interview by Richard Baillargeon, Rendez-vous 92  (2nd annual joint bulletin of Yé-Yé Publications and SARMA), 1992?, para. 5 online, translation courtesy The National Library of Canada, ©1997-08-12; available from: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/discologue/intervie.htm, Internet, accessed 2000, December 17. [F]

Lamothe, Louise. "Who remembers Disc-O-Logue?" Interview by Richard Baillargeon. Rendezvous 92 (2nd annual joint bulletin of Yé-Yé Publications and SARMA), 1992? Translation courtesy The National Library of Canada, ©1997-08-12. Available from: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/discologue/intervie.htm. Internet. Accessed 2000, December 17. [B]

PHOTOGRAPHS ON THE WWW

Not all sites provide the "required" information for a complete bibliographic citation. Check the list given on the previous page [under CITING ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS] and include as much information as is possible.

      42. Lawrie Raskin, (Photographer), Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair Avenue
West in Toronto, January 20, 1983 [Photograph on Internet], Glenn Gould Archive, National Library
of Canada, available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/ iv41.jpg, Internet, accessed 2000, January 7. [F]

Raskin, Lawrie. (Photographer). Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair AvenueWest in Toronto. [Photograph], [Internet] January 20, 1983. Glenn Gould Archive, National Library of Canada. Available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/iv41.jpg. Internet. Accessed 2000, January 7. [B]

[Return to Index]

PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER – the sample bibliography

Bibliographies are arranged in ALPHABETICAL ORDER - by the author’s surname. If, on occasion, you have NO author’s name - the convention is to use the TITLE (and IGNORE leading articles such as “the”, “a”) when placing the item alphabetically within your list.

Hanging indents are required. A bibliographic citation is single-spaced, with a double-space between citations.

Following is a sample bibliography, using items cited within this handout (as this is intended to be a sample, all preceding examples have NOT been included - however your bibliography must include all cited/footnoted references). I have included one additional item, to illustrate the convention used - to denote a second item by the same author (i.e. see the Mahler and McClatchie citations below).


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Boyce, William. Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatas on various subjects. London: I. Walsh, [1745]. Reprint: Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d..

Carl, Robert. Review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality, by Susan McClary. Notes:Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 48 (June 1992): 1288-1291.

Close, Joanne. "A case for arts education." Teach Magazine (Nov/Dec1997): 26-29, Canadian Businessand Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO AN 3701127. Accessed January 5, 2000.

Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana DI Firenze. 15th century music
manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F. Alberto
Gallo. Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992.

Elliker, Calvin. "The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly." In Music Publishing & Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel, edited by David Hunter. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1994: 189-203.

Forte, Allen. The Compositonal Matrix. Baldwin, NY: Music Teachers National Association, 1961. Reprint: New York: Da Capo, 1971.

Mahler, Gustav. "Symphony No.1." Copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-89, CDN-Lu OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

______. Symphony no.1 in D Major, Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard Bernstein. Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 6866]

McClary, Susan. Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.

McClatchie, Stephen. "The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rosé Collection at the University of Western Ontario." Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 385-406.

______. "'Liebste Justi': The Family Letters of Gustav Mahler." In Mahler Studies, ed. Stephen E. Hefling, 53-77. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 1980. S.v. "Auletta, Pietro," by Michael F. Robinson.

Raskin, Lawrie. (Photographer). Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair AvenueWest in Toronto. [Photograph], [Internet] January 20, 1983. Glenn Gould Archive, National Library of Canada. Available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/iv41.jpg. Internet. Accessed 2000, January 7.

Schumann, Robert. "Kennst du das Land." Sämmtlicher Lieder, v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. In Norton Anthology of Western Music, 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca, 338-342. New York: Norton, 1988.

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd rev. ed., 1964. S.v. "Ornamentation."

Stonehouse, Alison. "Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800." PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997.

Strangis, Anthony. "Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America." MM thesis, University of Western Ontario, 1987.

Strauss, Richard. Salome, Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall. 105 min. Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2, 1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26]

Revised and updated by: Lisa Rae Philpott, Music Reference Librarian, 2007/11/21. Re-formatted (again) using Drupal, 2010/03/19. Re-formatted (footnotes incorrectly displayed HANGING indents, uncertain as to timing of that change), 2014.7.4th.

Please send comments/corrections/suggestions to: Lisa Rae Philpott

MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

Summary:

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2017-10-23 08:53:38

Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered in chapter 6 of the MLA Handbook and in chapter 7 of the MLA Style Manual. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.

Basic in-text citation rules

In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase.

General Guidelines

  • The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1.) upon the source medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD) and (2.) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page.
  • Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text, must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry in the Works Cited List.

In-text citations: Author-page style

MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:

Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).

Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).

Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).

Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:

Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. Oxford UP, 1967.

In-text citations for print sources with known author

For Print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.

Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3).

Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).

These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry in the Works Cited:

Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966.

In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author

When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations (e.g., nat'l for national) where appropriate, so as to avoid interrupting the flow of reading with overly long parenthetical citations.

In-text citations for print sources with no known author

When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number if it is available.

We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . ." ("Impact of Global Warming").

In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:

"The Impact of Global Warming in North America." Global Warming: Early Signs. 1999. http://www.climatehotmap.org/. Accessed 23 Mar. 2009.

We'll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit, but right now it's important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.

Author-page citation for classic and literary works with multiple editions

Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto. In such cases, give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:

Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79; ch. 1).

Citing authors with same last names

Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. For example:

Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).

Citing a work by multiple authors

For a source with two authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation:

Best and Marcus argue that one should read a text for what it says on its surface, rather than looking for some hidden meaning (9).

The authors claim that surface reading looks at what is “evident, perceptible, apprehensible in texts” (Best and Marcus 9).

Corresponding works cited entry:

Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. “Surface Reading: An Introduction.” Representations, vol. 108, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 1-21. JSTOR, doi:10.1525/rep.2009.108.1.1

For a source with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name, and replace the additional names with et al.

According to Franck et al., “Current agricultural policies in the U.S. are contributing to the poor health of Americans” (327).

The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies (Franck et al. 327).

Corresponding works cited entry:

Franck, Caroline, et al. “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine, vol. 45, no. 3, Sept. 2013, pp. 327-333.

Citing multiple works by the same author

If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.

Citing two articles by the same author:

Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 17).

Citing two books by the same author:

Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" (Write to Learn 6). Additionally, Murray argues that the purpose of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another" (A Writer Teaches Writing 3).

Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, you would format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, followed, when appropriate, by page numbers:

Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" (Elkins, "Visual Studies" 63).

Citing multivolume works

If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s). (If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.)

. . . as Quintilian wrote in Institutio Oratoria (1: 14-17).

Citing the Bible

In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter and verse. For example:

Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10).

If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation.

Citing indirect sources

Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:

Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" (qtd. in Weisman 259).

Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.

Citing non-print or sources from the Internet

With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet, you may have to cite research you have completed in virtual environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource), some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source in your Works Cited.

Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers, but often, these sorts of entries do not require any sort of parenthetical citation at all. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:

  • Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
  • You do not need to give paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.
  • Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, like CNN.com or Forbes.com as opposed to writing out http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.

Miscellaneous non-print sources

Werner Herzog's Fitzcarraldo stars Herzog's long-time film partner, Klaus Kinski. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film.

During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention.

In the two examples above “Herzog” from the first entry and “Yates” from the second lead the reader to the first item each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page:

Herzog, Werner, dir. Fitzcarraldo. Perf. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, 1982.

Yates, Jane. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002.

Electronic sources

One online film critic stated that Fitzcarraldo "has become notorious for its near-failure and many obstacles" (Taylor, “Fitzcarraldo”).

The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. Its "MLA Formatting and Style Guide" is one of the most popular resources (Russell et al.).

In the first example, the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below). In the second example, “Russell et al.” in the parenthetical citation gives the reader an author name followed by the abbreviation “et al.,” meaning, “and others,” for the article “MLA Formatting and Style Guide.” Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows:

Taylor, Rumsey. "Fitzcarraldo." Slant, 13 Jun. 2003, www.slantmagazine.com/film/review/fitzcarraldo/.

Russell, Tony, et al. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL, 2 Aug. 2016, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/.

Multiple citations

To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:

. . . as has been discussed elsewhere (Burke 3; Dewey 21).

Time-based media sources

When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so (00:02:15-00:02:35).

When a citation is not needed

Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations or common knowledge. Remember, this is a rhetorical choice, based on audience. If you're writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, they'll have different expectations of what constitutes common knowledge.

0 Thoughts to “Essays Citations

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *