Essay Writing My Native Place Of Mango

Mango (Mangifera Indica) is the National fruit of India. This essay provides interesting information and facts on mango, the king of fruits.

Name: Mango, Aam

Scientific Name: Mangifera Indica

Adopted in: 1950

Found in: Native to South Asia; cultivated all over the world

Habitat: Terrestrial

Type: Stony Fruit

Season: Late February to early September

No. of Economically Important Cultivars: 283

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A particular fruit is designated as the national fruit of a country when it fulfills some key fundamental requirements. It must represent a powerful facet of the cultural attributes that a country wants to convey to the world. The fruit must have an enriching part in the country’s history. It should also have a considerable presence in the religious and spiritual heritage of the country. Mango, affectionately called King of Fruits is the National fruit of India. Its sweet fragrance and delectable flavors have won the hearts of many around the world. Mangoes remain one of the most cultivated tropical fruits in the world. As the national fruit of India it represents prosperity, abundance and richness in favor of the country’s image. 

Mango is one of the most widely grown fruits of the tropical countries. In India, mango is cultivated almost in all parts, with the exception of hilly areas. Mango is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India, we have hundreds of varieties of mangoes. They are of different sizes, shapes and colors. Mangoes have been cultivated in India since time immemorial. Even in our mythology and history there are stories of mangoes- the famous Indian poet Kalidasa sang its praise. Alexander the great, along with Hieun Tsang savored the taste of mangoes. The great Mughal king, Akbar is said to have planted over 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga (modern Bihar). The mango is eaten ripe and is also used for pickles.

Scientific Classification

Domain:           Eukarya

Kingdom:         Plantae

Subkingdom:   Tracheobionta

Division:          Magnoliophyta

Class:              Magnoliopsida

Subclass:        Rosidae

Order:              Sapindales

Family:            Anacardiaceae

Genus:            Mangifera

Species:          Mangifera Indica

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The pleasures of mango and its divine flavor have been known to Indians from a very early age. Fossil evidence traces back the appearance of mango in India, Bangladesh and Myanmar to 25-30 million years ago. It is referred to in Vedic scriptures like Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the Puranas, Rasala and Sahakara. The importance of mangoes in Buddhism was underlined by the fact that Lord Buddha chose to rest under the shade of a mango tree and Buddhist monks carried mangoes with them everywhere. Alexander the Great is said to have returned to Europe with several varieties of the fruit. Foreign travellers like Megasthenes and Hsiun-Tsang heavily praised the taste of the fruit and mentioned that Mango trees were planted by Indian rulers on the side of the roads as a symbol of prosperity.


Indian Mango or Mangifera indica is native to Southern Asia, particularly India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Buddhist monks are believed to have introduced the fruit to southeast Asian countries like Malaysia and China around 4th century B.C. Since then it has been introduced to East Africa by the Persians, and to West Africa and Brazil by the Portuguese.

The Mano Tree, Leaves & Fruit

The mango trees are medium to large in size ranging between 10-40 m in height. They are evergreen with large symmetrically round canopy with an average diameter of 10 m. Bark is dark brown in color. Leaves are elongated and 15-45 cm in length. Upper surface is dark green with a waxy layer while the underside is pale green in color. The leaves are arranged very closely together and appear to be bunched in groups of 5 or more. Flowers are produced in terminal panicles which are about 20 cm in length. Flowers are white in color, small with 5-10 mm long petals and with a sweet odour. Unripe fruits are generally green in color but the color of the ripe fruits vary and ranges from green to yellow to orange to red. The fruits are oblong in shape and are fleshy drupes. The length of the fruit varies from 25-40 cm. Each fruit carries a flattened pit that is oval in shape and is generally fused with the flesh by means of fibrous protrusions. The pit carries the plant embryo which is recalcitrant in nature.

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India leads the production of mangoes in the world with almost half the total production. In Europe, it is grown in Andalusia, Spain. In the USA, mangoes are cultivated in South Florida and California regions. The Caribbean Islands also see considerable cultivation of mangoes. In India, Andhra Pradesh state leads in production of mangoes. 

Mango is generally cultivated in tropical and warmer sub-tropical climates, upto an altitude of 1400 m from sea level. Humidity, rain and frost during flowering adversely affect the productivity of mangoes. Wet monsoon and dry summer is ideal for mango cultivation. Mango trees prefer slightly acidic soil with pH ranging from 5.5-7.5.  They can grow well in well-drained laterite and alluvial soil which is at least 15.24 cm deep.

Vegetative method of cultivation is preferred by farmers and techniques like inarching, veneer grafting and epicotyl grafting are employed. Well-nourished plants start bearing fruits after 3-5 years of planting, depending on the type of cultivar. Fruits are harvested between early February to August for most cultivars. Shelf life of mango fruits is short - about 2-3 weeks, hence they are stored in low temperatures of 12-13°C. 

In India, around 1500 varieties of mangoes are cultivated among which 1000 are of commercial value. The most popular and well known among these are Bombai, Himsagar and Kesar from early season, Alphonso, Banganapalli and Langra from mid-season, Fazli, Neelum and Chausa from late season. Several hybrid varieties have also been introduced, eg: Amrapali (Dashheri x Neelum) and Arka Aruna (Alphonso x Banganapalli).

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Nutrition Value

Ripe mangoes are generally sweet although some varieties can retain a sour taste even after ripening. The texture of the flesh varies across cultivars as well ranging between soft pulpy and firm or fibrous. Sour unripe mangoes are used in wide varieties of pickles and chutneys or may be eaten raw with salt and chilli. Drinks like aam panna and aamras are made from the pulps of raw and ripe mango respectively. Ripe mango pulp is used in making a number of desserts like mango kulfi, ice creams and sorbets. 

Mangoes are a rich source of anti-oxidants like quercetin, astragalin and gallic acid that have been proven to fight against certain types of cancers. High levels of fiber, pectin and vitamin C helps lower low-density Lipoprotein levels in blood. Mango pulp is rich source of vitamin A that helps improve vision. Mango fruits have low glycemic index and are fit to be consumed by diabetics. The abundance of vitamins and carotenoids present in mango pulp helps boost the immune system. Consumption of mangoes is associated with decreased risk of muscle degeneration as well as asthma.

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Economic Value

Mangoes are the most widely cultivated fruit in India. Wood from the mango tree is used for producing low cost furniture, packing cases etc. Tannin derived from the bark is used in leather industry. Although India leads the production of mangoes, most of it are consumed by the country’s population itself and only a small percentage is exported. 

Cultural Context

From ancient times, mangoes have been granted a special position in India. The fruit is heavenly in taste and is termed as ‘Food of the Gods’. It is a source of celebration among people from all social backgrounds. A perfectly ripe mango symbolizes attainment and prosperity. Mangoes are also representative of the country’s gift to the world. Jain Goddess Ambika is depicted to be sitting under a mango tree. Mango blossoms are an integral part of Saraswati worship. Mango leaves are considered auspicious and five mango leaves joined together is a mandatory component of Hindu Rituals.

This article is about the fruit. For other uses, see Mango (disambiguation).

Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.

The majority of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes. The genus belongs to the cashew family Anacardiaceae. Mangoes are native to South Asia,[1][2] from where the "common mango" or "Indian mango", Mangifera indica, has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most widely cultivated fruits in the tropics. Other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, Mangifera foetida) are grown on a more localized basis.

It is the national fruit of India, Pakistan, and the Philippines, and the national tree of Bangladesh.[3]


Mango trees grow to 35–40 m (115–131 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The trees are long-lived, as some specimens still fruit after 300 years.[4] In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m (20 ft), with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots and anchor roots penetrating deeply into the soil.[1] The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15–35 cm (5.9–13.8 in) long, and 6–16 cm (2.4–6.3 in) broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark, glossy red, then dark green as they mature.[1] The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm (3.9–15.7 in) long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long, with a mild, sweet fragrance.[1] Over 500 varieties of mangoes are known,[1] many of which ripen in summer, while some give a double crop.[5] The fruit takes four to five months from flowering to ripen.[1]

The ripe fruit varies in size, shape, color, and eating quality.[1]Cultivars are variously yellow, orange, red, or green, and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and which does not separate easily from the pulp.[1] The fruits may be somewhat round, oval, or kidney-shaped, ranging from 5–25 centimetres (2–10 in) in length and from 140 grams (5 oz) to 2 kilograms (5 lb) in weight per individual fruit.[1] The skin is leather-like, waxy, smooth, and fragrant, with color ranging from green to yellow, yellow-orange, yellow-red, or blushed with various shades of red, purple, pink or yellow when fully ripe.[1]

Ripe intact mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell.[1] Inside the pit 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 cm (1.6–2.8 in) long. Mangoes have recalcitrant seeds which do not survive freezing and drying.[6] Mango trees grow readily from seeds, with germination success highest when seeds are obtained from mature fruits.[1]


The English word "mango" (plural "mangoes" or "mangos") originated from the Malayalam word māṅṅa via Portuguese (also manga) during spice trade with Kerala in 1498.[7][8] The word's first recorded attestation in a European language was a text by Ludovico di Varthema in Italian in 1510, as manga; the first recorded occurrences in languages such as French and postclassical Latin appear to be translations from this Italian text. The origin of the "-o" ending in English is unclear.[9] Mango is also mentioned by Hendrik van Rheede, the Dutch commander of Malabar (Northern Kerala) in his book Hortus Malabaricus, a compendium of the plants of economic and medical value in the Malabar, published in 1678.[10] When mangoes were first imported to the American colonies in the 17th century, they had to be pickled because of lack of refrigeration. Other fruits were also pickled and came to be called "mangoes", especially bell peppers, and in the 18th century, the word "mango" became a verb meaning "to pickle".[11]


Mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years and reached Southeast Asia between the fifth and fourth centuries BCE. By the 10th century CE, cultivation had begun in East Africa. The 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported it at Mogadishu.[13] Cultivation came later to Brazil, Bermuda, the West Indies, and Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth.

The mango is now cultivated in most frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates; almost half of the world's mangoes are cultivated in India alone, with the second-largest source being China.[14][15][16] Mangoes are also grown in Andalusia, Spain (mainly in Málaga province), as its coastal subtropical climate is one of the few places in mainland Europe that permits the growth of tropical plants and fruit trees. The Canary Islands are another notable Spanish producer of the fruit. Other cultivators include North America (in South Florida and California's Coachella Valley), South and Central America, the Caribbean, Hawai'i, south, west, and central Africa, Australia, China, South Korea, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia. Though India is the largest producer of mangoes, it accounts for less than 1% of the international mango trade; India consumes most of its own production.[17][18]

Many commercial cultivars are grafted on to the cold-hardy rootstock of Gomera-1 mango cultivar, originally from Cuba. Its root system is well adapted to a coastal Mediterranean climate.[19] Many of the 1,000+ mango cultivars are easily cultivated using grafted saplings, ranging from the "turpentine mango" (named for its strong taste of turpentine[20]) to the huevos de toro.[citation needed] Dwarf or semidwarf varieties serve as ornamental plants and can be grown in containers. A wide variety of diseases can afflict mangoes.


Main article: List of mango cultivars

There are many hundreds of named mango cultivars. In mango orchards, several cultivars are often grown in order to improve pollination. Many desired cultivars are monoembryonic and must be propagated by grafting or they do not breed true. A common monoembryonic cultivar is 'Alphonso', an important export product, considered as "the king of mangoes".[21]

Cultivars that excel in one climate may fail elsewhere. For example, Indian cultivars such as 'Julie', a prolific cultivar in Jamaica, require annual fungicide treatments to escape the lethal fungal diseaseanthracnose in Florida. Asian mangoes are resistant to anthracnose.

The current world market is dominated by the cultivar 'Tommy Atkins', a seedling of 'Haden' that first fruited in 1940 in southern Florida and was initially rejected commercially by Florida researchers.[22] Growers and importers worldwide have embraced the cultivar for its excellent productivity and disease resistance, shelf life, transportability, size, and appealing color.[23] Although the Tommy Atkins cultivar is commercially successful, other cultivars may be preferred by consumers for eating pleasure, such as Alphonso.[21][23]

Generally, ripe mangoes have an orange-yellow or reddish peel and are juicy for eating, while exported fruit are often picked while underripe with green peels. Although producing ethylene while ripening, unripened exported mangoes do not have the same juiciness or flavor as fresh fruit.

Like other drupaceous fruits, mangoes occur in both freestone and clingstone varieties.[citation needed]


In 2013, world production of mangoes (data including mangosteens and guavas) was nearly 43 million tonnes, with India accounting for 42% (18 million tonnes) of the total (table).[24] China and Thailand were the next largest producers (table).


Mangoes are generally sweet, although the taste and texture of the flesh varies across cultivars; some have a soft, pulpy texture similar to an overripe plum, while others are firmer, like a cantaloupe or avocado, and some may have a fibrous texture. The skin of unripe, pickled, or cooked mango can be consumed, but has the potential to cause contact dermatitis of the lips, gingiva, or tongue in susceptible people.


Mangoes are widely used in cuisine. Sour, unripe mangoes are used in chutneys, athanu, pickles,[25] side dishes, or may be eaten raw with salt, chili, or soy sauce. A summer drink called aam panna comes from mangoes. Mango pulp made into jelly or cooked with red gram dhal and green chillies may be served with cooked rice. Mango lassi is popular throughout South Asia,[26] prepared by mixing ripe mangoes or mango pulp with buttermilk and sugar. Ripe mangoes are also used to make curries. Aamras is a popular thick juice made of mangoes with sugar or milk, and is consumed with chapatis or pooris. The pulp from ripe mangoes is also used to make jam called mangada. Andhra aavakaaya is a pickle made from raw, unripe, pulpy, and sour mango, mixed with chili powder, fenugreek seeds, mustard powder, salt, and groundnut oil. Mango is also used in Andhra to make dahl preparations. Gujaratis use mango to make chunda (a spicy, grated mango delicacy).

Mangoes are used to make murabba (fruit preserves), muramba (a sweet, grated mango delicacy), amchur (dried and powdered unripe mango), and pickles, including a spicy mustard-oil pickle and alcohol. Ripe mangoes are often cut into thin layers, desiccated, folded, and then cut. These bars are similar to dried guava fruit bars available in some countries. The fruit is also added to cereal products such as muesli and oat granola. Mangoes are often prepared charred in Hawaii.

Unripe mango may be eaten with bagoong (especially in the Philippines), fish sauce, vinegar, soy sauce, or with dash of salt (plain or spicy). Dried strips of sweet, ripe mango (sometimes combined with seedless tamarind to form mangorind) are also popular. Mangoes may be used to make juices, mango nectar, and as a flavoring and major ingredient in ice cream and sorbetes.

Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies, and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick dipped in hot chili powder and salt or as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations. In Central America, mango is either eaten green mixed with salt, vinegar, black pepper, and hot sauce, or ripe in various forms. Toasted and ground pumpkin seed (pepita) with lime and salt are eaten with green mangoes.[citation needed]

Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or blended with milk and ice as milkshakes. Sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut, then served with sliced mango as a dessert. In other parts of Southeast Asia, mangoes are pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar. Green mangoes can be used in mango salad with fish sauce and dried shrimp. Mango with condensed milk may be used as a topping for shaved ice.

Food constituents[edit]


The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) serving of the common mango is 250 kJ (60 kcal), and that of the apple mango is slightly higher (330 kJ (79 kcal) per 100 g). Fresh mango contains a variety of nutrients (right table), but only vitamin C and folate are in significant amounts of the Daily Value as 44% and 11%, respectively.[27][28]


Numerous phytochemicals are present in mango peel and pulp, such as the triterpene, lupeol which is under basic research for its potential biological effects.[29] An extract of mango branch bark called Vimang, containing numerous polyphenols,[30] has been studied in elderly humans.[31]

Mango peel pigments under study include carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-carotene, lutein and alpha-carotene,[32][33] and polyphenols, such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins and tannins.[34][35] Mango contains a unique xanthonoid called mangiferin.[36]

Phytochemical and nutrient content appears to vary across mango cultivars.[37] Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest of which was beta-carotene, which accounts for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango cultivars.[38] Mango leaves also have significant polyphenol content, including xanthonoids, mangiferin and gallic acid.[39]

The pigment euxanthin, known as Indian yellow, is often thought to be produced from the urine of cattle fed mango leaves; the practice is described as having been outlawed in 1908 because of malnutrition of the cattle and possible urushiol poisoning.[40] This supposed origin of euxanthin appears to rely on a single, anecdotal source, and Indian legal records do not outlaw such a practice.[41]


The flavor of mango fruits is constituted by several volatile organic chemicals mainly belonging to terpene, furanone, lactone, and ester classes. Different varieties or cultivars of mangoes can have flavor made up of different volatile chemicals or same volatile chemicals in different quantities.[42][43] In general, New World mango cultivars are characterized by the dominance of δ-3-carene, a monoterpene flavorant; whereas, high concentration of other monoterpenes such as (Z)-ocimene and myrcene, as well as the presence of lactones and furanones, is the unique feature of Old World cultivars.[43][44][45] In India, 'Alphonso' is one of the most popular cultivars. In 'Alphonso' mango, the lactones and furanones are synthesized during ripening; whereas terpenes and the other flavorants are present in both the developing (immature) and ripening fruits.[46][47][48][49]Ethylene, a ripening-related hormone well known to be involved in ripening of mango fruits, causes changes in the flavor composition of mango fruits upon exogenous application, as well.[50][51] In contrast to the huge amount of information available on the chemical composition of mango flavor, the biosynthesis of these chemicals has not been studied in depth; only a handful of genes encoding the enzymes of flavor biosynthetic pathways have been characterized to date.[52][53][54][55]

Potential for contact dermatitis[edit]

Contact with oils in mango leaves, stems, sap, and skin can cause dermatitis and anaphylaxis in susceptible individuals.[56] Those with a history of contact dermatitis induced by urushiol (an allergen found in poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac) may be most at risk for mango contact dermatitis.[57] Cross-reactions may occur between mango allergens and urushiol.[58] During the primary ripening season of mangoes, contact with mango plant parts is the most common cause of plant dermatitis in Hawaii.[59] However, sensitized individuals are still able to safely eat peeled mangos or drink mango juice.[59]

Cultural significance[edit]

The mango is the national fruit of India,[60][61] Pakistan, and the Philippines. It is also the national tree of Bangladesh.[62][63] In India, harvest and sale of mangoes is during March–May and this is annually covered by news agencies.[21]

The Mughal emperor Akbar (1556–1605 ) is said to have planted a mango orchard having 100,000 trees in Darbhanga, eastern India.[64] The Jain goddess Ambika is traditionally represented as sitting under a mango tree.[65] In Hinduism, the perfectly ripe mango is often held by Lord Ganesha as a symbol of attainment, regarding the devotees' potential perfection. Mango blossoms are also used in the worship of the goddess Saraswati. No Telugu/Kannada New Year's Day called Ugadi passes without eating ugadi pachadi made with mango pieces as one of the ingredients.

Dried mango skin and its seeds are also used in Ayurvedic medicines.[25] Mango leaves are used to decorate archways and doors in Indian houses and during weddings and celebrations such as Ganesh Chaturthi. Mango motifs and paisleys are widely used in different Indian embroidery styles, and are found in Kashmiri shawls, Kanchipuramsilksarees, etc. Paisleys are also common to Iranian art, because of its pre-Islamic Zoroastrian past.

In Andhra Pradesh, mango leaves are considered auspicious and are used to decorate front doors during festivals.

In Tamil Nadu, the mango is referred to as one of the three royal fruits, along with banana and jackfruit, for their sweetness and flavor.[66] This triad of fruits is referred to as ma-pala-vazhai.

Fruit drinks that include mango are popular in India, with brands such as Frooti, Maaza, and Slice. These leading brands include sugar and artificial flavors, so they do not qualify as "juice" under Food Safety and Standards Authority of India regulations.[67]

In the West Indies, the expression "to go mango walk" means to steal another person's mango fruits. This is celebrated in the famous song, "The Mango Walk".

In Australia, the first tray of mangoes of the season is traditionally sold at an auction for charity.[68]

The classical Sanskrit poet Kālidāsa sang the praises of mangoes.[69]

Mangoes, although they were almost unheard of in China before, were popularized during the Cultural Revolution as symbols of Chairman Mao Zedong's love for the people.[70]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ abcdefghijklMorton, Julia Frances (1987). Mango. In: Fruits of Warm Climates. NewCROP, New Crop Resource Online Program, Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University. pp. 221–239. ISBN 0-9610184-1-0. 
  2. ^Kostermans, AJHG; Bompard, JM (1993). The Mangoes: Their Botany, Nomenclature, Horticulture and Utilization. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-421920-5. 
  3. ^"Mango tree, national tree". 15 November 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  4. ^"Mango". California Rare Fruit Growers. Retrieved 4 November 2015. 
  5. ^"Mango (Mangifera indica) varieties". Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  6. ^Marcos-Filho, Julio. "Physiology of Recalcitrant Seeds"(PDF). Ohio State University. Archived from the original(PDF) on 24 January 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2014. 
  7. ^MangoMerriam Webster Dictionary.
    "Origin of mango: Portuguese manga, probably from Malayalam māṅga. First Known Use: 1582"
  8. ^"Definition for mango – Oxford Dictionaries Online (World English)". Retrieved 17 June 2012. 
  9. ^OED Online entry mango, n. 1. (Draft revision Sept. 2010, retrieved 13 October 2010)
  10. ^"Hendrik Adriaan Van Reed Tot Drakestein 1636–1691 and Hortus, Malabaricus". Retrieved 4 November 2015. 
  11. ^Creed, Richard (5 September 2010). "Relative Obscurity: Variations of antigodlin grow". Winston-Salem Journal (Opinion). Retrieved 6 September 2010.  
  12. ^Watson, Andrew J. (1983). Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world: the diffusion of crops and farming techniques, 700–1100. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 72–3. ISBN 0-521-24711-X. 
  13. ^Jedele, S.; Hau, A.M.; von Oppen, M. "An analysis of the world market for mangoes and its importance for developing countries. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, 2003"(PDF). 
  14. ^"India world's largest producer of mangoes, Rediff India Abroad, 21 April 2004". 31 December 2004. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  15. ^"Mad About mangoes: As exports to the U.S. resume, a juicy business opportunity ripens, India Knowledge@Wharton Network, June 14, 2007". 14 June 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  16. ^"USAID helps Indian mango farmers access new markets". USAID-India. 3 May 2006. Archived from the original on 1 June 2006. 
  17. ^"USAID Helps Indian Mango Farmers Access New Markets". Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  18. ^"". Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  19. ^According to the Oxford Companion to Food
  20. ^ abcJonathan Allen (10 May 2006). "Mango Mania in India". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  21. ^Susser, Allen (2001). The Great Mango Book. New York: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 1-58008-204-1. 
  22. ^ abMintz C (24 May 2008). "Sweet news: Ataulfos are in season". Toronto Star Online. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  23. ^"Production/crops of mangoes including mangosteens and guavas for 2013". United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division. 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
A mango tree in full bloom in Kerala
Closeup of the inflorescence and immature fruits of an 'Alphonso' mango tree
The "hedgehog" style is a form of mango preparation
Major flavor chemicals of 'Alphonso' mango from India

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