Scotch College Library Bibliography

Referencing accurately. It's critical!

Citation Makers and Referencing

Young High School uses the Harvard system of citation (also called the author/date system), which is mandatory in most local universities, TAFE and other training colleges. 

The school teacher librarian is able to assist students to compile bibliographies, in-text referencing and footnotes. 

Ensuring that you reference your work correctly is now a critical element of your research and learning.

The following sites can help to generate a bibliography when resource details are inserted. For more information on where to find the information and how to insert the details, consult with the teacher librarian.


Why must I cite my sources?

  • I cannot claim the work or ideas of someone else as my own
  • Plagiarism is not just when I directly copy words from someone else's work. Plagiarism is also when someone else's work is paraphrased or their ideas are used and claimed as my own.
  • Referencing has a positive effect and adds credibility to my work.
  • When I reference correctly, I am demonstrating that (a) I have read widely on the topic and (b) that I am supporting my hypotheses with comments from expert authors and/or reliable sources
  • Correct referencing allows the marker/reader to follow-up my references and check the validity of my arguments for themselves


Bibliography generators

A bibliography generator can be helpful in accurately pulling together your sources. Some useful bibliography generators include:


  • Cite this for me:
  • Scotch College:
  • Neil's Toolbox:
  • Sydney TAFE:


Citing material from the Internet / websites

When citing web sites or pages which may change it's important to make a note of the date you accessed the page or retrieved information from the page, and also note the URL of the page.

Websites can sometimes be difficult to cite as you might have to draw information from different areas of the webpage or website to put into your citation. Some information, like authorship or publication date can be hard to find or identify. The brief video tutorial will give you some useful tips on where to look for information to make your citation as complete as possible.


Citing material from the Internet/websites

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Webpage: No Author

Use first few words of the page title

(Improve indigenous housing 2007)

Improve indigenous housing now, government told, 2007. Available from:

Webpage: No Date

(Jones, n.d.)

Jones, MD n.d., Commentary on indigenous housing initiatives. Available from:

Web Document

(Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources 2006)

Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources 2006, Being Prepared for an Influenza Pandemic: a Kit for Small Businesses, Government of Australia, Available from:


(Australian Securities Exchange 2009)

Australian Securities Exchange 2009, Market Information. Available from:


(Newton 2007)

Newton, A. 2007, Newcastle toolkit. 16 January 2007. Angela Newton: Blog. Available from:

Computer Software

( 2005), computer software 2005. Available from:

Web Based Image / table / figure

(The Lunar Interior 2000)

The Lunar Interior, 2000. Available from:


Basic format for citing a book or e-Book

Author(s) family name, initial(s) Year of publication, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.


Citing a book or e-Book: examples

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example

Book: Single Author

(Holt 1997) or Holt (1997) wrote that...

Holt, DH 1997, Management principles and practices, Prentice-Hall, Sydney.

Book: 2 or 3 Authors

(McCarthy, William & Pascale 1997)

McCarthy, EJ, William, DP & Pascale, GQ 1997, Basic marketing, Irwin, Sydney.

Book: More Than 3 Authors

(Bond et al. 1996)

Bond, WR, Smith, JT, Brown, KL & George, M 1996, Management of small firms, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.

Book: No Author

(A history of Greece 1994)

A history of Greece 1994, Irwin, Sydney.

Book: Editor

(ed. Jones 1998)

Jones, MD (ed.) 1998, Management in Australia, Academic Press, London.

Book: 2 or More Editors

(eds Bullinger & Warnecke 1985)

Bullinger, HJ & Warnecke HJ (eds) 1985, Toward the factory of the future, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Book, edition other than first.

(Drafke, 2009)

Drafke, M 2009, The human side of organizations, 10th edn, Pearson/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J

Book: Translator & Author

(trans. Smith 2006)

Colorado, JA 2006, Economic theory in the Mexican context: recent developments on the ground, trans. K Smith, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Book: Organisation as Author

(Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics 2001)

Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics 2001,Aquaculture development in Australia: a review of key economic issues, ABARE, Canberra.

Book: Chapter or Article in Edited Book

A number of disturbing facts intrude' (Milkman 1998, p 25)

Milkman, R 1998, 'The new American workplace: high road or low road?' in Workplaces of the future, eds P Thompson & C Warhurst, Macmillan Press, London, pp. 22-34.


(Aghion & Durlauf 2005)

Aghion, P & Durlauf, S (eds.) 2005, Handbook of economic growth, Elsevier, Amsterdam. Available from: Elsevier books. [Accessed: 4 November 2004].

E-book: Chapter or Article in an Edited E-book

'Historical thinking is actually a Western perspective' (White 2002, p 112)

White, H 2002, 'The westernization of world history' in Western historical thinking: an intercultural debate, ed J Rusen, Berghahn Books, New York pp. 111-119. Available from: ACLS Humanities E-Book. [Accessed: 14 May 2009].

Book: Different Works by Same Author in Same Year

(Bond 1991a) (Bond 1991b)

Bond, G 1991a, Business ethics, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.

Bond, G 1991b, Corporate governance, Irwin, London.


Citing multimedia formats: examples

Material Type

In-Text Example

Reference List Example


(Effective performance appraisals 1994)

Effective performance appraisals 1994, (video recording), Melbourne, Educational Media Australia.

Television Programme

(Crystal 1993)

Crystal, L (executive producer) 1993, The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour(television broadcast) 11 October 1993, New York and Washington DC, Public Broadcasting Service.

Audio Podcast

(Van Nuys 2007)

Van Nuys, D (producer) 2007, 'The anatomy of a lobotomist [Show 84]',Shrink Rap Radio (podcast). Available from:

Video Podcast

(Kloft 2006)

Kloft, M (producer/director) 2006, The Nuremberg trials (motion picture), in M.Sameuls (executive producer), American experience (podcast). Available from:

Music Track from an Album

(Shocked 1992)

Shocked, M 1992, 'Over the waterfall', on Arkansas Traveller (CD). New York, Polygram Music.

Video Blog Post

(Norton 2006)

Norton, R 2006, 'How to train a cat to operate a light switch' (video file). Available from:


(Bend it like Beckham 2002)

Bend it like Beckham. 2002. (Film) Los Angeles: Fox Pictures.


Further explanations on referencing can be obtained from these sites:



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