Tourism In Kerala Essay Checker

Location
Flag
Quick Facts
CapitalThiruvananthapuram
Government Indian State
Currency Indian rupee (INR)
Area 38,863 km2
Population 33,387,677 (2011 est.)
LanguageOfficial:Malayalam, English
Religion Hinduism 56.12%, Islam 24.7%, Christianity 19%, Other 0.1%
Electricity 230V/50Hz, Indian (Old British)/European plugs
Time Zone UTC +5:30

Kerala[1], a state in Southern India is known as a tropical paradise of waving palms and wide sandy beaches. It is a narrow strip of coastal territory that slopes down the Western Ghats in a cascade of lush green vegetation, and reaches to the Arabian sea. Kerala borders the states of Tamil Nadu to the east and Karnataka to the north. It is also known for its backwaters, mountains, coconuts, spices and art forms like Kathakali and Mohini Attam. It is the most literate state in India, and a land of diverse religions, where you can find Hindu temples, mosques, churches, and even synagogues. With world class tourist sporting options, ayurvedic spas and treatments, eco-tourism initiatives, a large number of visit options ranging from beautiful high altitude blue mountains to pristine rain forests to golden sun-sand beaches and an enormous range of accommodation, Kerala has much to offer the visitor.

Understand[edit]

The tourism department of Kerala boasts that the state is God's Own Country. Once you visit, you will see where this claim comes from. The state really is blessed with great natural beauty, and diverse ecology.

The state is also considered to be one of the safest regions of India. Incidents of local people cheating tourists are almost non-existent. Kerala has high standards of living compared to its neighbours and other Indian states and has social lifestyle indices such as education and healthcare that are on par with developed countries [2]. Therefore tourists can relax without being followed around by taxi drivers, touts, guides and similar. However still be prepared to put up with beggars who have migrated from poorer neighbouring states. Abundant rainfall means that you can find lush greenery that remains pretty much throughout the year. A holiday here is an opportunity for rejuvenation. You can get an Ayurvedic oil massage, spend a day or two on a houseboat with nothing to do but watch coconut trees pass by, or just laze around on Kovalam or Varkala beaches. Thus tourism is more experiential here, rather than being composed of superficial sightseeing options.

Kerala was named as one of the "ten paradises of the world" and "50 places of a lifetime" by the National Geographic Traveler magazine. Kerala is a state wedged between the Western Ghats on the eastern side and the Arabian Sea on the West, thus having a wide range of topography from high altitude mountains to golden beaches and is criss crossed by 41 rivers. The tributaries, unique backwaters, lagoons and numerous small islands provide many scenic attractions for visitors.

History[edit]

Large parts of Kerala were not subject to direct British rule. Malabar was a district of Madras Presidency under direct British rule, but Tiruvithamkoor (Travancore) and Kochi (Cochin) regions were autonomous kingdoms ruled by Maharajas during the period of the British rule in India, and were known for their progressive attitude which resulted in various welfare reforms, particularly in the areas of education and health care.

Kerala was the place in India where European colonization first started. The Portuguese were the first to discover a direct sea route between Lisbon and Kozhikode in Kerala, and this marked the beginning of European colonisation in the country. Soon the Dutch, French, Italians and British were all lured by the wealth of spices and silk, and came with the intention of forming colonies. The defeat of the Dutch by the Travancore Army at the Battle of Colachel, and the decline of Portuguese Empire and French problems in Europe, resulted in the British gaining the full influence in country, and the annexation of the Malabar region into the British Madras Presidency.

However, the Kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore remained independent with little interference from the British, and they were staunch allies. After the independence of India, the Kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin choose to accede into the Indian Union, and were later merged into a single State of Travancore-Cochin. With the linguistic reorganisation of States, the Malayalam-speaking regions of Malabar and Travancore-Cochin were integrated into the State of Kerala on November 1st 1956. This realised a united Kerala, a dream held since the partition of the ancient Kerala Empire of Cheras in the eighth century. Today, people in Kerala live a largely traditional lifestyle, and much of the rich culture and heritage of the region is well-preserved.

November 1st is celebrated as Keralappiravi (Birth of Kerala) Day (also observed as Malayalam Divasam or Malayalam Day).

Climate[edit]

Kerala, being very close to equator, has a tropical climate. Kerala experiences heavy rains almost throughout the year, and is one of the wettest areas on the earth.

Kerala has three distinct seasons:

  • Summer lasts from from mid-February to mid-May. The tropical sun is really hot and temperatures can go up to 35°C in the afternoons.
  • The monsoon is in place from mid-May until early September. The North-East Monsoon winds bring heavy showers.
  • Mid-October to early February can be termed a mild winter in the hilly areas, which can get cool and misty. The weather, however, remains hot and tropical on lower ground. Heavy rains occur from the last week of September until until early November, due to the retreat of the South-East monsoon.

When in Kerala, carry an umbrella no matter what time of the year it is. You can be caught in a sudden shower in summer which will leave you drenched if you are unprepared. The Kerala sun coupled with high rate of humidity can be unforgiving in the summer months.

The temperature averages around:

  • 28°C - 34°C daytime, 24°C - 28°C at night in summer seasons of March, April
  • 20°C - 28°C daytime, 18°C - 25°C at night for the rest of the year

Temperatures may drop down to 10°C or sometimes even little below during Winter seasons (November, December) in Hilly areas of Western ghats, especially at popular hill-stations like Munnar and Wynad etc, which results a misty days and freezing nights coupled with light cold showers. However in other places, the temperatures never drop below 20°C.

Recently summers have become hotter. Though the maximum temperature on summers has never risen higher than 36°C, the rising humidity has made recent summers difficult. The height of the Kerala summer is normally between mid-March and May. Wear only light loose cotton clothes during this season. Consider a trip to hilly areas where the temperatures never exceed 26°C.

Kerala experiences mild winds throughout most of the year.

Religion[edit]

Hinduism is the largest religion in the state. Hinduism in Kerala is bit different to other parts of India, due to assimilation of traditional Dravidian culture, and later due to the unique practice of Marumakathyam (matrilineal system) which made the society highly matriarchal unlike patriarchal values found else where in India. This also helped the society to be highly tolerant to cross-caste/religious marriages and co-living systems. Also Kerala is the only last place in world, where ancient Hindu Vedic Tantric rites are practiced widespread.

Kerala's Islam is also unique. Its believed that Islam reached shores of Kerala around 700 AD, due to strong trading relations between Kerala and Arabia that time. This resulted in Kerala adopting highly liberal Shafi'i School of Islam like many Arab countries such as Oman and Yemen, and unlike the Hanfi school elsewhere in India.

Christianity too has made a unique mark in Kerala's history. St.Thomas the Apostle came in 52 AD and spread the message of Christ. Kerala has the largest number of churches, of which many are considered very sacred, in India. Kerala is home for 2 Syrian Catholic churches,2 syrian orthodox churches and 1 independent church apart from several independent congregations.

For thousands of years Buddhism was the most influential religion in Kerala. It was only in the 11th and 12th centuries that Brahmanism took hold in the state and Buddhism waned. Another religion, found in minority is Jainism, with limited number of followers in Wayanad, Kozhikode and Kochi. The presence of considerable followers of Sikhism, mainly those who have migrated from Indian state of Punjab, also brought the religion to Kerala.

Judaism has existed in Kerala for about 2,000 years, and today a minority of Jews live around Kochi, although there was a mass migration to Israel in 1950s following the founding of Israel.

Due to its strong socialist values and history of several communist movements, the state has a considerable number of people following Atheism.

Hindus constitute about 56% of the population, Muslims 24% and Christians account for about 19%. Communal and sectarian tensions are rare. Kerala is considered as the most peaceful place in South Asia.

Culture[edit]

Unique to Kerala, the Malayalee culture is derived from ancient Tamil-Dravidian practices combined with Arya-Indian culture, with influences from China, Japan, Arab countries, Portugal, Holland and even from the British. There are a lot of Tamil-Sanskrit elements, resulting in many unique practices and customs. Each community in Kerala has its own unique Malayalee culture which will not be found anywhere outside Kerala.

The Buddhist influence brought Ayurveda into a prominent position as well as Kalaripayattu (Kerala's traditional martial art). While religious beliefs and its associated myths & legends are well rooted in the Malayalee psyche, the influence of communism and the Kerala renaissance has resulted in separation of religion from the daily routine of life.

Kerala architecture has lot of Tibetan-Chinese influence, due to its seclusion from other parts of India when the Western Ghats prevented Tamil influences. Most of the buildings have gabled, tiled roofs and a heavy use of wood with prominent slanting windows and ornamental flora designs. The Sree Padmanabhapuram Palace near thuckalay in kanyakumai, is a classic example of this style.

Dance, music, drama all have distinctive styles. Dances and music often attract large crowds.

A good way to experience the entire arts and culture of Kerala in one place is at the Annual Kerala State School Art Festival, normally held in December or January. The location changes between various district headquarters on a rotational basis. This was constituted by the government as a competition amongst school children to promote Kerala arts and culture. This is Asia's largest festival according to the Guinness Book of records, with more than 82 art forms show-cased during its ten day duration.

Dance[edit]

  • Kathakali. Kerala's celebrated classical ballad with use of large costumes and elaborate make-up. It is a dance drama, noted for wide range of characters, each character with special kind of costumes and make-up with special movements, particularly extensive expressions, refined gestures and innovative themes. The dance is accompanied with anchor playback music and precise drumming. The Kathakali Music is unique as it varies in accordance to expressions and reactions. Whilst traditional Indian epics constitute the main story-boards for the dance drama, many international versions like Shakespearian-Homer-Biblical works are now taken as themes.
  • Mohiniyattom. This classical artform of Kerala is a subtle and graceful dance performed by women in traditional costume. Most of the themes are poems, unlike other classical dances which have an emphasis on Hindu mythology.
  • Koodiyattom. An ancient form of theatre with a legacy of more than 2,000 years. This is very stylised Sanskrit theatre and recognised by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Most of the characters are noted for Sanskrit recitations and highly stylised movement, particularly eye expressions. Some parts of the stories are expressed only using the eyes.
  • Theyyam. This is a ritualistic rite performed in the temples of Malabar. It is an ancient tradition, whereby worship takes the form of performance, rather than formal worship. While dressed in Theyyam costume, peformers are considered Gods and Goddesses. There are nearly 41 various types of Theyyam, each noted for its different legend and stories. A visit to any Malabar temples during Theyyam season (Dec-Mar), is advised.
  • Chavittu Nadakam (Malayalam:ചവിട്ടുനാടകം). This is a highly colorful Christian classical art form originated in Gothuruth village,North Paravur, Kerala state in India. It is noted for its attractive make-up of characters, their elaborate costumes, detailed gestures and well-defined body movements presented in tune with the rhythmic playback music and complementary percussion. This art form highly resembles European Opera. Chavittu Nadakam is believed to be originated during the 16th century AD. This form of play is prevalent among the Christian community in the districts of Alappuzha, Ernakulam and Thrissur of Kerala.
  • Margam Kali (Malayalam:മാര്‍ഗ്ഗംകളി). is one of the ancient group dance of Kerala practiced by Saint Thomas Christians.The Margamkali is a ritual folk dance in which twelve people dance around a traditional oil lamp (Nilavilakku). They represent the twelve apostles and Christ himself is represented by the lamp. They perform the dance wearing the traditional white dhoti and a peacock feather on the turban. Margamkali is essentially famous among the Syrian Christ of Kottayam and Thrissur districts of Kerala.

There are more than 14-15 various Dance forms, all indigenous to Kerala. A detailed check with locals or web search, may help you to identify some others.

Music[edit]

Kerala has its own indigenous music and orchestration.

  • Melam. This is a percussion ensemble, with several variants differing in the number of percussive instruments used, as well as the style of playing them. Melam is extremely popular and is s mostly used during temple festivals, when more than six hours of continuous playing is the norm. Melam attracts large crowds and creates wonderful notes. The Thrissur Pooram has the largest Melam, with more than 300 musicians in the ensemble.
  • Sopanam. This is Kerala's unique classical music; slow, graceful rhythms. Most of the original versions are poems, and the music is coupled with poetic expression and style. Sopanam is now limited to regular performances at temple events.
  • Mappila Songs. This music is associated with the local Muslim community. Traditionally, the songs were performed in Mappila Malayalam - a mixture of Arabic and Malayalam - and most tell stories of social systems and customs. Today, Mappila songs are popular amongst youngsters, using Malayalam lyrics. Mappila songs have a charm of their own as their tunes sound a mix of the ethos and culture of Kerala as well as West Asia.
  • Poems plays a pivotal role in Malayalam music culture. Kerala is extremely for its various famous poetic traditions and large number of poems of high literarly value. Aksharaslokam (Poem recitations) is a common sight in many village temple platforms and during festival times, where poets recites poems and challenge other poets to start their recitation with the phrase, the former has ended his recitation
  • Film Music. As elsewhere in India, film music is extremely popular, and Malayalam songs can be heard everywhere.

Martial art[edit]

Kalarippayattu (Kalari) is believed to be one of the oldest martial arts in world. It soon became a major weapon of war. Kalaripayattu has many styles, the best known being Northern Style and Southern Style. While former is focused on using various weapons, the Southern style uses powerful strokes with the bare hand. The knowledge of vital spots, known as Marma, on the human body helped Kalaripayattu warriors, make blows that can freeze or kill a person.

The British Government passed legislation banning Kalari, considering it a potential danger, and this resulted in a brief decline. Today, it is a popular sport and exercise option which gets international attention. There are many cultural centres which showcase Kalari techniques as well as schools in Thiruvanathapuram, Kottayam and many places in north Malabar.

Drama[edit]

Drama was once a very popular medium in Kerala, and played a large role in the spread of Communist ideology and the social renaissance of the region. Due to the popularity of television soaps and cinema, the popularity of live drama has waned. However, some high-end dramas involving technology and innovative themes are gaining popularity in major metropolitan areas. JT Pac in Kochi and Tagore Theatre in Trivandrum regularly features dramas, particularly English and other vernacular features. Thrissur is the hub of Kerala drama, with many theatres hosting regular shows. Thrissur also hosts the annual International Drama Festival of Kerala, attracting prominent dramatists, from across the world. Most Kerala dramas are performed in Malayalam, and the stories based on social realities. Some temples offer dramas as part of their Temple festival programs.

Cinema[edit]

Malayalam Cinema is a popular local entertainment option. It tends to focus on social realities, and avoids the glitz & glamour prevalent in the Bollywood and Tamil movie industries. If you want to watch a Malayalam movie in a local theatre, be aware that there is no sub-titling, except for those movies nominated for out of state awards. Trivandrum hosts the annual International Film Festival of Kerala which focuses on Asian and Latin movies, while Kochi hosts Kochi International Film Festival, mostly screening selection of world cinema and prominent Indian movies. Now a days several film societies do host regular movie festivals.

Traditional dress[edit]

The traditional costumes of Kerala are called mundu and neriyathu, for both men and women. Sarees and blouses form the traditional costume of Kerala women. Kerala Mundu is very popular in the state and is worn by many men. Its a special white/cream colour dhoti worn across the waist. The dhothi has a golden thread work as a strip running down from the waist to bottom, and the width of the gold thread determines the cost. It is an elegant costume, mostly used for ceremonial purposess. The women's Mundu Neriyathu is similar and has an upper shawl of same material. White colour is one of the most preferred in the state. Today different versions of Mundu and Neriyathu with different colours and motiffs is available.

Talk[edit]

The people of Kerala speak Malayalam (a palindrome when written in English). Most people understand basic English but cannot speak the same. Most of Kerala's urban dwelling population are able to communicate in English and in 'broken' Hindi. But most of the rural population do not speak or understand Hindi. Most of the locals understand spoken Tamil with some difficulty. Kannada is only understood in districts bordering near Karnataka. Many Malayalees particularly in Malabar areas and among Gulf returnees, can understand basic Arabic and some can speak in a limited way. Almost all bus routes and other important signs including name boards are written in Malayalam and some are in English. Most City Bus destinations are prominently written in Malayalam, some having English signage represented in small fonts which is often difficult to read. All of the bus conductors and ticket checkers do understand English. Long Distance and Inter-state buses do carry English signage. Railways and other central government establishments use signs written in Malayalam, English and Hindi. Highway signs are normally in Malayalam and English. Most Kerala Government offices use only Malayalam signage and most Kerala Govt documents such as receipts and bills are in Malayalam. The only exception to this, would be Judicial Department and Courts, as they use English as official language for all its communications, even though the judicial transcripts are normally in Malayalam. Translation centers are normally seen near all court areas for the purpose.

Most of the signages of shops and other private establishments are normally written in English along with Malayalam. Most of the bills and other documents other than government's will be in English.

Government[edit]

Kerala is a state in the Union of India. The state government has a cabinet of ministers headed by the Chief Minister. A Governor appointed by the Government of India has a titular role as head of state. Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram) is the state capital and houses the Kerala Secretariat, the legislature house called Niyama Sabha and offices of various ministers and officials. The state is divided into 14 districts which are further divided into Taluks. Each district has a major city as its district headquarters, which houses offices of district administration. Each district administration is headed by a Government official known as District Collector. The Kerala High Court is located at Kochi.

Kerala is a traditional socialist leaning state, and has a strong communist movement. This was the second place in the world after San Marino where a communist government was elected to power through democratic means. Kerala's communism today tends to be more like European socialism and which also focuses on a market economy and reforms. Kerala has a tradition of two major alliances: one led by the Communist Party of India called LDF (Left Democratic Front), and another led by the Indian National Congress called UDF (United Democratic Front). These tend to swing to power for alternate five year terms. The current government is lead by the LDF under the leadership of Pinarayi Vijayan who is the State Chief Minister.

Kerala has a strong decentralized government culture, by which local governments and district administration are empowered to take many decisions. Most of the government related applications and requests can be handled at local level. District Administrators known as Collectors do have wide range of powers being executive magistrates. Tourists can avail Visa related as well as immigration procedures either at office of the District Superintendent of Police (in smaller towns), City Police Commissionerate (in cities) or at the Foreigner Regional Registration Offices (FRRO) in Trivandrum, Cochin (Airport) and Calicut.

Kerala Police has a specialized division known as Tourist Police with separate desks or aid posts to assist tourists over various issues.

Economy[edit]

Kerala has been through a period of strong growth with one of the highest per-capita income and poverty levels are extremely low compared to elsewhere in India. Most households have family members working somewhere outside the state, typically the Middle East, and their remittances make up for around 20% of the economy. Agriculture is highly focused on high value cash-crop cultivation such as rubber, tea, coffee, spices and coconut plantations. Tourism is now a booming industry in Kerala, and accounts for a significant part of the state's economy. In addition, Kerala has a very powerful service sector such as banking & financial services, education, medicine & healthcare, entertainment, real estate, retail, logistics and trade etc which drives the economy in a very big way.

Regions[edit]

Malabar
Famous for its heritage, spices, textiles and food, Malabar is one of India's most notable historical regions
Central Kerala
The largest urban agglomeration of Kochi, the cultural heart of Kerala-Thrissur, and food basket of Kerala-Palakkad are located here
Central Travancore
Kerala's backwaters,Ashtamudi Lake, and the land of churches, latex and literacy
Northern Travancore
Known for its mountains and hill stations, and plantations of spices, tea and coffee

Cities[edit]

  • Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) — The capital city housing the political administration, famous for its beaches, historical monuments and parks. The city is also famous for its temples,educational institutions, and research centres.
  • Kollam (Quilon) — A tourist heaven famous for its Ashtamudi Lake, cashew & coir industries, surrounded by backwaters and lakes.
  • Kochi (Cochin) — Kochi is a major port city and the largest urban agglomeration with unlimited shopping options. Kochi is the economic capital of Kerala. Kochi is very well connected with other cities of India. Known as 'Queen of the Arabian sea", the city's heritage quarter- Fort Kochi is one of the most sought after destination in Kerala.
  • Alapuzha (Alleppey) — popularly known as Venice of East due to its amazing network of canals, rivers, streams, lakes and backwaters, which doubles as both transport and leisure spots. The most sought destination for Backwater tourism.
  • Kannur — A historical town famous for its strong heritage, martial arts 'Kalaripayattu', temple art 'Theyyam', political movements, forts, beaches and spices/coffee growing hills.
  • Kottayam — known for its latex, literacy and letters and as major educational centre. Munnar hill station is nearby.
  • Kozhikode (Calicut) — Most prominent city of Malabar area,where Vasco da Gamma landed for the first time in India, and one of the world's oldest thriving trade centres. A very clean city known for its friendly inhabitants and celebrated across the world in form of its vast array of cuisines.
  • Palakkad — gateway to Kerala by land through the Palghat Pass in Western Ghats; known for its paddy (rice) fields, hills, traditional homes, cuisines and composite culture. Tipu Fort, Malampuzha Gardens, Silent Valley National Park are nearby.
  • Thrissur (Trichur) — the cultural capital of Kerala and also famous for jewellery shops and silk sarees. Temple festivals with caparisoned elephants like Thrissur Pooram. Athirappilly falls, Guruvayur Temple are nearby.

Other destinations[edit]

  • Bekal Fort — a massive coastal Portuguese fort in north Kerala
  • Kerala Backwaters — Must Visit Ashtamudi Lake , Kollam, stretching across South central Kerala,
  • Kovalam Beach — World famous beach near Trivandrum
  • Kumarakom — backwater near Kottayam
  • Munnar — Unspoilt hill station in tea growing hills and misty mountains
  • Silent Valley National Park — rain forest with several endangered, protected species
  • Thekkady — Periyar Tiger Reserve and elephant forests.
  • Wayanad — Misty hills, caves, waterfalls and pristine forests
  • Ponmudi — Hill station at Trivandrum, known for its beautiful scenery.
  • Varkala — One of the busiest beach famous with foreign travellers.

Get in[edit]

Kerala is the only state in India that have two Indian Electronic Tourist Visa ETV (formely known as Visa on Arrival) entry ports for tourists at Kochi & Thiruvananthapuram[3] . The two airports have special desks for ETV passengers which can provide support to nationalities of Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, Cambodia, Canada, Cayman Island,Chile, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Laos, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Montenegro, Montserrat, Myanmar, Nauru, New Zealand,Nicaragua, Niue Island, Norway, Oman, Palau, Palestine, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Republic of Macedonia, Russia, Saint Christopher and Nevis, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, UAE, Ukraine, USA, Vanuatu, Vatican City-Holy See, Vietnam [4]

For visa extensions FFRO (Foreigners Registration Regional Office) in Kochi, Trivandrum and Kozhikode as well as District Superintendent of Police are also empowered to do any changes related to visa area. Tourist Police stations do have help desks and support facilities for foreigners who want any visa change or visa extensions.

By plane[edit]

There are three airports in Kerala, with flights to domestic and international destinations: Kochi(Cochin), Kozhikode, and Thiruvananthapuram(Trivandrum). The airports have several carriers operating international flights around the world.

  • Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (IATA: TRV) Best connected to major cities in India and Abroad, Charter flights for tourism from London, New York and Moscow operate to Thiruvananthapuram.
  • Cochin International Airport[[5]] (IATA: COK) Europe and US bound passengers need to transit in the Middle East or Far East or Mumbai, though chartered flights are common during tourist season, mostly from Europe. There are regular Flights to most parts of India.
  • Kozhikode International Airport (IATA: CCJ) is a major airport in Malabar with international connections to most of the cities in the Middle East.

In addition Mangalore Airport (IATA: IXE) and Coimbatore Airport (IATA: CJB) in neighboring states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu respectively are near to Kerala Borders and hence offers limited connectivity to Northern and Eastern districts of Kerala respectively.

There are 20 to 25 international carriers offering flights to Kerala. Apart from international carriers, Air India, Air India Express, Jet Airways and Indigo offers international connections from the 3 airports. Domestic destinations accessible by direct flights from these airports include Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai, Agatti, Hyderabad, Mangalore, Pune, Goa and Delhi. There are daily flights to most Indian cities from airports in Kochi and Trivandrum by all the Indian carriers. Kochi has Air-Cruise turnaround program with chartered services.

Shuttles operated by KSRTC are available from airport to its respective city core and nearby towns. Taxis are the most popular for Airport-City connection.

By train[edit]

Indian Railways [6] operates several trains to and from Kerala. More than 500 plus trains connect Kerala to all parts of India, including long-haul direct train services to cities like Delhi, Jaipur, Kolkata and Mumbai. Trivandrum Rajadhani, Ernakulam Durnoto, Kerala Express and Netravati Express are some of the most popular trains connect key cities across India.

Log on to the Indian Railways booking site [7] to book tickets online or you can walk up to any railway station to book tickets between any two destinations in India. Smart Phone/Tablets can view details via any apps [8]

Be aware that trains are the most popular method of transport and almost all trains in Kerala originate or terminate in Thiruvananthapuram or Kochi, and are usually heavily booked. Buy your tickets as early as possible. Another option is using Tatkal. You pay almost double, but have a chance of getting a seat. Tatkal is an emergency service, hence its booking is open just 24 hours before departure. Some travel agents have authorized booking quotas for certain trains.

Recently, the luxury tourist train The Golden Chariot has introduced a South Indian Rail Tour, which includes many parts of Kerala. This is a good option for those who want to visit the South Indian states on as tight schedule. The train starts from Bangalore and covers Chennai, Pondicherry, Trichy, Madurai, Trivandrum, Alapuzha, Kochi and back to Bangalore. The 7 night/8 day package tour, costs US$3,000-7,000 depending upon the class taken.

By bus[edit]

Inter-state private and government buses operates between neighboring states. Usually the journey is performed in the night so that you can escape the heat of the day. The most common inter-state bus is Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC-Karnataka) with daily bus from most of Major cities of Kerala to Bangalore, Mysore and Mangalore. Tamil Nadu State Bus like SETC also operates regularly from Kerala. Kerala's State bus- KRSTC-Kerala do have regular Ordinary bus to most of nearby places in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. KRSTC-Kerala also operates a few Volvo AC bus to Bangalore and Coimbatore.

However Private bus players to operate more buses than Govt options. Most of them are well maintained. Kallada, Shama, KPN are the major bus players, though recently Raj National and few others have entered with Pan India operations. Kallada, KPN, Shama etc have regular buses to Bangalore, Chennai and many other places in Tamil Nadu as well as Karnataka on various times

It is recommended that you consider booking long distance bus tickets on "air conditioned Volvo buses" operated by all operators as the quality of the other buses vary significantly.

By road[edit]

Kerala is well connected by National Highways and recently it was renumbered. Both numbers are used interchangeably:

  • NH 66 (Connecting Mumbai to Kanyakumari via Western coastal side of Goa, Karnataka and almost all coastal cities of Kerala like Kannur, Kozhikode, Kochi, Alapuzha, Kollam, Trivandrum etc) (Earlier known as NH 17)
  • NH 544 (Connecting Salem with Kochi via Coimbatore, Palakkad, Thrissur (Earlier known as NH 47)
  • NH 766 (Connecting Kozhikode to Mysore via Wayanad)(Earlier known as NH 212)
  • NH 85 (Connecting Kochi to Ramaeswaram via Munnar, Madurai)(Earlier known as NH 49)
  • NH 183 (Connecting Kollam to Dindigul in Tamil Nadu via Kottayam, Kanjirapally, Kumily and enters into Tamil Nadu at Kambam)(Earlier known as NH 220)
  • NH 744 (Connecting Kollam with Madurai via Punalur, Shenkottai, Tenkasi)(Earlier known as NH 208)
  • NH 966 (Connecting Palakkad with Kozhikode) (Earlier known as NH 213)

Most of the NH roads are two lane carriageways. Only NH 544 is currently 4 lane carriage with dedicated service roads. However its tolled highway. As vehicle density is very high in Kerala, accidents are common[9]. You must be extra cautious while driving here.

By ferry[edit]

Kochi is a major cruise port and currently the most busiest cruise port in India. The port has International Cruise Facilitation Center and almost all major cruises that have global voyages have Kochi as port of call. All Lakshadweep bound cruises originate in Kochi and make return trips. There are also occasional tourist oriented cruises from Mumbai and Goa to Kochi

Also private yachts and other sea going boats regularly call at Kochi Marina. A few cruises call at Trivandrum.

Get around[edit]

Kerala is quite well connected with all modes of transport. The flat southern side is better connected than mountainous north. One of unique feature of Kerala, is its continuous urban and semi-urban areas across both sides of any road or rail. As a result, you might not feel you exited from village/city into another, being continuous. This helps in getting transport to travel around easily.

Unique to Kerala's geographic feature, most of the key cities lie almost linearly on North-South axis, which almost are connected by one key Trunk road (NH 66) and one key rail route. Due to this advantage, its pretty easy to reach any major city by catching intercity/inter-state buses plying on these trunk routes.

By train[edit]

Trains are good for long distance travel within the state. Most trains are long distance trains with stops at many of Kerala's stations. Majority of trains enter into Kerala from Tamil Nadu on east side and Shornur being the major junction that divides rail line into Northern branch and Southern branch. Trains on Konkan route enters from Northern side of Kerala reach use Shornur to branch either eastward or southward. Trains on south route is one main line untill Ernakulam where it branches to Kottayam Line and Alleppey line and runs parallel to each other as Vembanadu Lake comes inbetween these places. Both the lines merges back at Kayamkulam and further proceed southward as one major line to Trivandrum and further southward to Kanya Kumari.

Short distance trains are mainly intercity passenger trains, connecting only major cities like Trivandrum, Kochi, Palakkad, Alapuzha, Kollam, Kottayam, Kozhikode, Kannur and Thrissur. The main Intercity trains are:

  • Trivandrum-Mangalore Express which covers almost all major cities of Kerala on its west coast.
  • Trivandrum - Kozhikode Jana Shatabdi Express is a fast services connecting via Ernakulam, Kottayam, Kollam.
  • Trivandrum Guruvayur Intercity- very popular option for regular commuters working between cities.
  • Trivandrum-Shornur Venad Intercity Express.
  • Trivandrum-Palakkad Amrita Express.
  • Kannur-Ernakulam Intercity Express.

Express trains are relatively faster, as they stop only at major stations and gets priority in event of crossing. Passenger trains stops at all stations in a route and can be held-up in event of an express train crossing, thus takes longer time. However latter is good option, if one needs to align at small village or town stations, not catered by express trains.

Railways have introduced MEMU services, between Kochi-Thrissur-Palakkad and Kochi-Kollam sector, similar to Mumbai's Local trains, connecting all stations (small and big) on route, at increased speed.

By road[edit]

Roads remain the primary popular options. Almost each nook and corner of the state is well connected by road. The primary roads are NH 66, NH 544, NH 85, NH 183, NH 744, NH 766 and NH 966 which all National Highways. The NH 66 is one of most busiest as it connects almost all cities of Kerala on West coast, especially connecting three major metros- Kozhikode, Kochi and Trivandrum which runs on North-South Axis. The NH 544 which connects Kochi to Coimbatore and further to Chennai and Bangalore is equally a very busy commercial route that connects on East-West axis and primary gateway route to Kerala.

The primary State Highway is MC Road (Main Central Road), which covers on the most scenic places in south Kerala connecting between Angamally, the Northern suburb of Kochi with Trivandrum, covering the high-land areas of eastern areas. However NH 66 cut the time at least by 1 hour for a travel between Kochi and Trivandrum as it uses the flat terrain of Alleppey coast on west.

State Highways connect to almost all parts of Kerala and Kerala has the highest density of roads in the country, connecting literarily every single village or part of the state. Most of the roads including NH are however bi-lane, so even narrow roads due to huge settlement on both sides of road and higher population density. Only NH 544 is 4/6 lane highway with dual carriageway, while rest all are 2 laned roads.

Signages are common everywhere, written in both Malayalam and English and sometimes in Hindi also. Roadside boards notifying the place name and speed are are well indicated in most of the highways. National Highways are written as NH within a Yellow/Green shield with the number, while State Highways are written as SH within Yellow/White shields. Roads without any shield indicates Panchyat/Local Municipal roads.

Speed limits

For NH (Non Urban areas)- 65 Km/Hr - 90 Km/Hr, For SH(Non Urban areas) - 50 Km/Hr - 80 Km/Hr, For Urban areas - Maximum limit- 40 Km/Hr

Most of the roads have radars and on-street cameras to catch speeding vehicles and fines bills will be send to licensee's registered address via post.

Cars[edit]

Unless you seek adventure, its not advisable to drive a car. Narrow roads with bustling traffic with little driving discipline makes self drive not safe, especially those accustomed to western kind of driving. Most of Kerala highways are two-lane with no medians. Though many are recently upgraded to better standards with proper signages and markings, its equally common to see roads without these. Street lighting in most of highways and roads are non-existent, which makes night drive dangerous for people not accustomed. Driving is on the left, and all foreign drivers need a valid International Driving Licence attested by any Road Transport Office (RTO). Most of the bridges and few roads carry toll charges collected at manned toll plazas or checkpoints. Almost all tolls are uniformly charged separately for one/two way; 2 wheelers- Rs 3/5, 4 wheelers- Rs 5/10 and bus/minivans - Rs 15/25. Almost all the toll pass is valid for unlimited travel for a period of 24 hours, though a few bridges allow one time validity.

Car rental is not so popular among foreign visitors, particularly among westerners. Many car rental companies refuse to provide self-drive cars to Westerners. Normally a bank guarantee letter or security cheque/traveller's cheque to the value of the car or a passport are taken as security for renting the car.

However chauffeured car rentals are available for visitors for daily or weekly or even monthly basis. No security deposit is needed if the car is chauffeur-driven. There are multiple car rental companies as well as call taxi agencies, operating in most of the towns. Equally in major cities, drivers can rented on daily basis, if you have a car availed from friends. Most hotels with three stars or more provide private cars for their guests at rates slightly higher than elsewhere.

Taxi[edit]

Its pretty easy to travel across Kerala in tourist taxis. There is no formal color/livery for tourist taxis, but white cars with a taxi sign in black on the doors is commonly seen. Tata Indica, Toyota Innova and Maruti Swift Dezire are the most popular tourist vehicles nowadays. There is no meter system for any taxis in Kerala, while a few cab companies offers cabs with GPS facility. Equally, there are no cab top signs in these vehicles (however, according to state law all vehicles which are available for hire should have yellow number plates).

Regular taxis are normally available at designated taxi stands located at places such as railway stations, the airport, boat jetties, major bus stations and in front of important hotels. There is no need to negotiate prices, as most of them follow fixed rates. Regular taxis have tariff cards displayed on the dashboard. Call taxis have charges fixed by their respective companies (although they are normally uniform). It is more common to see such cabs mainly in cities. The standard tariffs are Rs 100 for first 5 km, and Rs 11 per km thereafter. Add 10% for a cab with A/C, and 25% at night. If taxis are operated for inter-city drop-off/pick-up etc, two way charges (both up & down) are needed to be paid, irrespective of whether its used or not.

Radio taxis are getting popular in major cities and several popular brands like Vayu Travels, Taxio, Fast Cabs, CelCabs, Bcabs etc operate there. Most of them are GPS enabled and many are monitored through control facilities. Uber and Ola, both app-based taxi services, are widely available in Kochi & Trivandrum and are cheap and safe options for intra-city travel within these cities.

Recently the state government introduced women-centric She-Taxis (lady taxis) in major cities like Kochi, Trivandrum, Kozhikode and aims to cover entire Kerala by mid of 2016. The cars are exclusively driven by women and are a comfortable option for lady travelers and families. SheTaxis are GPS enabled modern fleet of vehicles that is constantly monitored from the control facility. This option is no available for single men and can be hailed only if there is at least one woman traveling. In other cities, lady taxis run by lady co-op societies like Kudumbashree are also getting popular though many are not GPS enabled.

In hilly areas, 6 seater SUVs (mostly of Mahindra, colloquially called 'Jeeps' or 'Truckers' ) are more common as taxis. The hilly terrains demand 4 wheel drive vehicles as taxis. However normal taxis from other parts do operate to such areas, though in some difficult areas, a change of vehicle might be required. One can find such trucker stands near the main junction of small towns in the region. The rates are usually higher and you might need to negotiate with the driver beforehand.

Many cab companies also offer full or half day services. Typical rates are Rs 1,100/1,500 for standard/AC cabs for a full day and Rs 500/750 for a half day. Evening rates with a hike of 25% is applicable after 8 PM and its common to pay driver an additional amount for an overnight stay during the trip known as bata.

There is no share-taxi system as such in Kerala, even though car-pooling among employees of same company or locality are getting popular. However, it is not uncommon to see taxi operators operating on the shared basis if the original hirer gives consent for so. Please be aware, such sharing of taxi is Illegal as per the law and if caught, the driver, owner and all the passengers in the taxi at the time are liable to be punished by fines. However, this is often unenforced and even if caught it usually gets overlooked as the passengers can claim each other as friends.

Motorbikes & Cycles[edit]

Some people point out that the best way to experience Kerala is on a motorbike. Riding a motorbike and travelling across state you get the closer look and feel of God's own country with all the smells and sounds added. There are companies which organize packaged tours or tailor made tours for enthusiastic bikers and adventurous travellers for a safer motorbike experience of India with regular promotions mostly through online forums and Facebook.

Purchase of bikes among tourists are not popular, unless one plans to have an extended stay. There are several motorcycle clubs and rental agencies that provide motorbikes on rent even on monthly basis. Such agencies can be found in tourist areas like Kovalam, Varkala, Fort Kochi, Cherai, Alleppey, Kozhikode etc. A check with local District Tourist Office (DTPC) or local travel agencies/travel desks etc can help to identify the local agencies.

Off-recently bicycle rentals are gaining much popular in the state. Cycle safari tours in many cities are increasing to help tourists to get first hand experience. There are cycle clubs as well as cycle stands in many key cities like Kochi & Trivandrum. For local city explorations, cycles are a reasonable option, but be aware that there are very few (if any) reserved cycle paths available and you will need to negotiate unruly traffic.

By hitch hiking[edit]

Unlike other states, hitchhiking is not a very popular option in Kerala, especially for foreign tourists. Since Kerala does not have any deserted long highway, being a continuous stretch of urban areas on sides of any highway, its perfectly possible to get any form of public transport or services like auto-rickshaws.

However, hitch-hiking is possible in hilly terrains and plantation areas where farm vehicles or bikes do stop and help travellers on road.

By bus[edit]

Bus transport is most popular transport to travel within Kerala and ideal for budget conscious travellers. Kerala has an excellent public bus system operated by both government-owned Kerala State Road Transport Corp (KSRTC-Kerala) and various private operators. All fares are determined by Transport Department and uniform across the state in accordance to nature of buses. Typically, there are 6 class of buses

  • Ordinary (ORD), which is a basic, no-frills services with covering short and medium distance areas with stoppages at all legal stops in its authorised route. The minimum fare is Rs 6 with 58 paise for every km
  • Fast Passenger (FP), is better service covering large distances with limited stops, only at main villages or towns. Also known as Limited Stop Bus with initials LS/FP marked in red or white within a circle in its route board. The minimum fare is Rs 8 with 62 paise for every km.
  • Super Fast (SF), also known as Express Services, connects only major towns and district headquarters. The minimum fare is same as of FP, however it costs 65 paise for every km.
  • Deluxe Express (LF), also known as Super Express in some places, is a strictly point-to-point services, connecting major cities with technical stops only in major cities. This services uses larger air-suspension bus with comfortable cushion seats. The minimum fare is Rs 25 with 70 paise for every km
  • AC Lowfloor Buses, operated by wholly owned subsidiary called as KURTC, this is a semi Urban-Highway connect service connecting small towns in a region to major cities. The buses are normally Volvo Low floor buses air-conditioned. The minimum fare is Rs 40 with 1.10 Rs per Km.
  • SilverJet Fast, is a new pan Kerala service connecting Trivandrum in South to Kasargod in North as well as few major cities in central region to both the ends of the state. The air-bus are non air-conditioned, but offers push back fully reclinable seats, wifi facility, video screens and live monitoring. The buses has only very limited stops, limiting to one per district.

In addition, KSRTC operates air-conditioned premium buses known either as Garuda services, in a limited manner between major cities, as part of inter-state services. The fares of inter-city of such services are Rs 35 as minimum fare with Rs 1 to Rs 1.2 for every Km depending upon type of bus.

KSRTC brands all SF/FP operating in northern districts as Malabar and Venad for all South Kerala districts. Note for the initials, to differentiate whether its FP or SF. Though KSRTC services are not known for its comfort, its one of the most reliable services in the country, with punctuality at its top order. Whereas private bus services are not keen in punctuality, but keen in maintaining the bus and its comfort level. In some places, there exists unhealthy competition among private operators, in regard to the speed and time taken to cover the scheduled distance, making the services erratic.

While KSRTC has different liveries for each of class of service (red for Ordinary, green for FP, blue-white for SF), private operators has no uniform liveries and paint according to their choice. Most of the private bus services are known popularly among locals in the name of the bus company like Angel, Rajesh, Kallara etc. The name are normally written in super-size on top of the windscreen, mostly in English.

All KSRTC buses have its own bus depots or stations in major towns and villages and stops only at those stops that displays its logo. Whereas private buses do stop at any convenient part of towns and villages, though in few cities it has its own private bus stands and stations. Check with locals, to know where each class of bus operates. There is no route numbering for buses in Kerala. Destination will be written in bold on Windscreen as well as side of the buses in Malayalam and English (not in all cases), along with on-route places written below to it, mostly in Malayalam. Most of the ticket-conductors can help with basic simple English.

While KSRTC mostly issues e-ticket slips, private buses normally go for traditional paper slips with destination hand-written or color coded. Retain the ticket till end of the journey, as often ticket-inspectors may board in-between for surprise checks and in event of loss of ticket, you are liable for fine for a travel rate from place where the bus originated.

Most of the buses are crowded and travelers would do well to beware of pickpockets.

By convention, ladies and children occupy the front side of buses and single males towards back.

By autorickshaw[edit]

Also called autos, these three wheelers are a convenient mode of transport for very short distance travel. By law the auto driver has to start a meter for every journey. However at times this law tends to be overlooked. It is wise to ask the driver, politely, to ensure he starts the meter at the start of your journey or negotiate and fix the price of the trip before boarding, to avoid unnecessary arguments at the end of the trip. The general behavior of drivers varies places to places. While places like Kozhikode, Malappuram, Kottayam etc have some of the best friendly drivers who go beyond to help passengers, drivers in major cities like Kochi, Trivandrum etc are often reported to be errant. Must apply lots of common senses, especially when dealing with drivers in touristy places like Alleppey, Munnar, Fort Kochi, Wayanad etc, where they trend to appear helpful and drive the passengers to the places where they get hefty commissions or rewards.

Generally the fares of autos are higher than government fixed rates, citing unrealistic govt decisions and frequent rise in petrol/diesel prices. In most of places, an ad-hoc arrangement of rates fixed among auto-drivers are common.

Most of adhoc arrangement rates are Rs 20 as flagdown rate for first 2kms and Rs 12 per km and Rs 15 per km as evening/night rates (Govt fixed rates are much lower with Rs 10 as flagdown rate and Rs 7 per km). A check with locals will help to know the such rates, as the rates may go higher if they find the person who doesn't know the rates or foreigners.

Kerala

The most popular Hill station of Kerala - Munnar
Thrissur Pooram, India's biggest temple festival
Sree Padmanabhapuram Palace- world's largest Wooden palace, a specimen of Kerala architecture
Kathakali, the lone Indian classical dance drama, originated from Kerala
Kerala Government Secretariat- The seat of Kerala Government
The Napier Museum in Trivandrum
The Chinese fishing nets of Kochi
Cochin International Airport- Kerala's largest airport

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