Energy Crisis in the World
The World on the Brink of an Oil Crisis
Harnessing New sources of Energy
In an industrially advanced world of today, the demand for energy is increasing day by day. Energy is required to run our factories and machines, to run our planes, trains, cars and buses, to drive our ships and submarines, to make the wheel move. The major sources of energy so far have been coal and oil. But with the passage of time, coal and oil are bound to be used up. According to all indications, it is clear that the world is heading fast towards a major energy crisis. It is estimated that at the present rate of consumption, entire estimated range of recoverable oil in the world will be completely exhausted by the year 2015 or 2025.
The position in respect of coal in the world is also equally bad. In another 25 to 30 years, the coal mines would stop giving out coal. It will be a difficult situation. The developing countries of the world have already started looking for other sources of energy. Atomic energy, which promises a big hope, is full of risks and hazards. Moreover, atomic energy can be produced only at a very high cost. It has been calculated that nuclear construction costs are rising every day. They have now risen to 1000 dollars a kilowatt from one hundred dollars in 1960. Again, nuclear plants do not last forever. Their average life is 50 years. When they are dead, they cannot be dismantled like any other plant. They have to be buried deep and guarded forever. For these reasons the world has to think twice before committing itself completely to nuclear power.
The scientists are now trying to harness solar, biogas, water and air reserves. Water is being used in a big way to produce hydroelectric power at comparatively cheaper rates. Similarly, air mills are being developed in advanced countries of the world. Solar energy, too, has a bright future. Thermal generating units depending upon solar energy are being developed at a fast rate. Giant dishes are made to concentrate the sunlight on the thermal generators which use this sunlight to produce energy. Animal and human wastes are also being rapidly exploited as a source of energy.
The position in respect of energy in India is not very discouraging . The production of oil in the country is fast increasing. It has doubled from 15 million tonnes to 30 million tonnes during the last five years. India is able to produce 60 per cent of her needs but it cannot hope to be self- sufficient soon. India has already started harnessing sources other than oil and coal. But she can do so only with the constraints of the capital resources available with her. Thirty per cent of the country’s capital investment under the Seventh Plan was used for the energy sector. At present, we are paying a very high price for our petrol. Kerosene, the poor man’s fuel, is rationed. Water pumps in the agricultural farms have no diesel, shortage of furnace oil is threatening the closure of several industries.
A few years ago, our oil experts were highly optimistic as they struck oil in the Bombay High wells, “We have hit the jackpot,” said they. The ONGC authorities have discovered oil at a few more discovered oil fields. As the situation stands today we are not producing enough while our consumption is increasing every week.
All this only means that our planners must rise to the occasion and evolve a national energy policy to make use of all the available sources so that the country is saved from a difficult situation and the sun. On the international field, the developed countries of the world must launch a massive programme for harnessing all available sources of energy. They must also help the relatively less affluent countries to harness new sources of energy i.e. unconventional sources of energy.
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Energy Crisis Essay Outline
- 1. Introduction
- 2. Pakistan Energy Sector
- Energy Supply
- Energy Consumption
- 3. Sources of Energy In Pakistan
- Non-Renewable Resources
- Renewable Resources
- Alternative Energy Sources
- 4. Causes of Energy Crisis in Pakistan
- Higher Consumption
- Less supply
- Energy theft
- 5. Recommendations and Solutions
Introduction: Energy is very much essential for all the activities of the daily life and that is why its deficiency can have sever impacts on the lives of the people as well as the economy of the state, and that is why it is considered to be one of the most significant fundamental rights of the people and is the most important obligation of the government to provide the people of the state with the required capacity of the Energy.
Pakistan Energy Sector: Pakistan in one of those countries which don’t have a very well equipped and stable infrastructure of the Energy sector for which it is not developed properly and that is one major Problem of Pakistan and core reason for which the country is facing sever and alarming energy crisis from the past one decade. The Government has not shown some positive intent and instead of planning for new projects of energy generation or from shifting from traditional means to something new and more effective they have relied on imposing the cost of the energy on the local people which has made it very difficult for the locals to pay the bills and hence, the problem is still their existing.
The difference between the demand and the supply of the energy is getting higher and higher which is even making the conditions worse. In the time span of 2009 and 2010 it was being reported that the energy supply per capita availability of energy declined by 0.64% but in the last year which was 2012 the decline has reached to almost 3.09%. in the modern scenario the energy consumption and energy supply gap is increasing by time to time as the current production of the Energy in Pakistan is almost 15,000 to 20,000 Mega Watt but at the same the production is just 11, 500 to 13, 000 Mega Watt so the deficit of 4,000 to 5,000 Mega Watt exists which is considered to be a huge difference.
Pakistan Energy consumption is increasing to a huge extent and that is why it is not just relying on the Electricity as there are a lot of Electricity Crisis in Pakistan too but at the same time which are also contributing in this regard of meeting the shortfall.
Sources of Energy in Pakistan: Pakistan do have the leverage of not only depending on the electricity traditional means of the generation of power and energy but at the same time they have many other sources but the only need is to plan them properly and more practically so that they can be used for the purpose of energy production.
Under the non renewable resources we do have Petroleum products, fossil fuels, Coal, Natural gas as in Pakistan the contribution of various sources of power are as follows;
- Gas: 43.7%
- Oil/Petroleum: 29.0%
- Electricity: 15.3%
- Coal: 10.4%
- LPG: 1.5%
In renewable resources we do have the hydro power system which can be increased and enhanced so that we can meet our demands and the short fall can be decreased.
Current Hydropower stations:
- Tarbella Dam : 3,478 MW
- Ghazi Brotha: 1450 MW
- Mangla 1,000 MW
- Warsak 240 MW
- Chashma 184 MW
Potential Hydropower stations:
- Diamer-Bhasha Dam 4500 MW
- Munda Dam – Swat river in Mohamand Agency 740 MW
- Kalabagh Dam 2400-3600 MW
- Bunji Dam 5400 MW
- Dasu Dam 3800 MW
In the alternate solutions for the meeting the demand and supply gap in Pakistan we need to establish those means of energy production which are not that much common in Pakistan, as in this process we can shift from the traditional means of generating energy, this will also enable us to generate more energy and will also help us to prevent the reserves of the oil and gas in our country. The alternate means of generating energy in Pakistan are;
- Agricultural Biomass and Biodiesel
Causes of Energy Crisis in Pakistan: The major causes and the reason which have contributing in to the power shortfall is the mainly due to the increasing populations, because as simple as that the population is increasing day by day in the state which is definitely increasing the demand of energy and that is increasing the demand to supply gap. Energy theft is also a curse which Pakistan is bearing in which people not only on domestic level but even commercially and industrially are doing energy theft in which they are consuming the energy on high levels but are not paying the concerned department and body for which that all energy is being drained in vein.
Recommendations & Solutions: The solutions of the energy crisis in Pakistan must be implemented and adopted on emergency basis and the main solution to the problem is that the administration should shift to more modernized means of production so that they can increase the level of production and should meet the demand and at the same time the responsibility also lies on the people of the state that they should play their role in reducing the consumption and saving the energy so that Pakistan can be brought out of this alarming situation and from this threatening problem.