Outline For Pete Rose Essay

For other people named Pete Rose, see Pete Rose (disambiguation).

Pete Rose

Rose in 2008

Outfielder / Infielder / Manager
Born:(1941-04-14) April 14, 1941 (age 76)
Cincinnati, Ohio
Batted: SwitchThrew: Right
MLB debut
April 8, 1963, for the Cincinnati Reds
Last MLB appearance
August 17, 1986, for the Cincinnati Reds
MLB statistics
Batting average.303
Hits4,256
Home runs160
Runs batted in1,314
Teams

As player

As manager

Career highlights and awards

MLB records

  • 4,256 career hits
  • 3,215 career singles
  • 3,562 career games played
  • 14,053 career at-bats
  • 15,890 career plate appearances

Peter Edward Rose Sr. (born April 14, 1941), also known by his nickname "Charlie Hustle", is an American former professional baseball player and manager. Rose played in Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1963 to 1986, and managed from 1984 to 1989.

Rose was a switch hitter and is the all-time MLB leader in hits (4,256), games played (3,562), at-bats (14,053), singles (3,215), and outs (10,328).[1] He won three World Series rings, three batting titles, one Most Valuable Player Award, two Gold Gloves, the Rookie of the Year Award, and also made 17 All-Star appearances at an unequaled five different positions (second baseman, left fielder, right fielder, third baseman, and first baseman). Rose won both of his Gold Gloves when he was an outfielder in 1969 and 1970.

In August 1989 (his last year as a manager and three years after retiring as a player), Rose was penalized with permanent ineligibility from baseball amidst accusations that he gambled on baseball games while he played for and managed the Reds; the charges of wrongdoing included claims that he bet on his own team. In 1991, the Baseball Hall of Fame formally voted to ban those on the "permanently ineligible" list from induction, after previously excluding such players by informal agreement among voters. After years of public denial, Rose admitted in 2004 that he bet on baseball and on the Reds.[2] The issue of Rose's possible reinstatement and election to the Hall of Fame remains contentious throughout baseball.

On June 22, 2015, ESPN concluded its own investigation of Rose and determined that he had bet on baseball while still a player-manager from 1984 to 1986. The results of the investigation were made public and revealed the records of bets that Rose had made on baseball. U.S. federal authorities had seized the records from one of Rose's associates.[3]

Early life[edit]

Rose was born April 14, 1941, in Cincinnati, Ohio, one of four children born to Harry Francis "Pete" and LaVerne Rose. He was a member of the Order of DeMolay as a young boy and was encouraged by his parents to participate in sports.

He played baseball and football at Western Hills High School.[4] Although Rose was small for his age, he earned the starting running back position on his freshman football team. When he was not promoted to the varsity football team in his sophomore year, Rose was dejected and soon lost interest in his studies. At the end of the school year, Rose's teachers decreed he would have to attend summer school or be held back. His father decided it would be better for Pete to repeat a year of school than miss a summer playing baseball. It would also give Pete an extra year to mature physically.

When Rose reached his senior year, he had used up his four years of sports eligibility. In the spring of 1960, he joined the Class AA team sponsored by Frisch's Big Boy of Lebanon, Ohio in the Dayton Amateur League. He played catcher, second base and shortstop and compiled a .626 batting average. This would have been the pinnacle of Rose's baseball career if not for the help of his uncle Buddy Bloebaum. Bloebaum was a "Bird dog" scout for the Reds and he pleaded the case for his nephew.[5] The Reds, who had recently traded away a number of prospects who turned out to be very good, decided to take a chance on Pete. Upon his graduation from high school, Rose signed a professional contract.

Playing career[edit]

Cincinnati Reds (1963–78)[edit]

Rookie of the Year[edit]

During a spring training game against the Chicago White Sox in 1963, the Reds' regular second baseman, Don Blasingame, pulled a groin muscle; Rose got his chance and made the most of it. During another spring training game against the New York Yankees, Whitey Ford gave him the derisive nickname "Charlie Hustle" after Rose sprinted to first base after drawing a walk.[6][7] Despite (or perhaps because of) the manner in which Ford intended it, Rose adopted that nickname as a badge of honor. In Ken Burns' documentary Baseball, Mickey Mantle claimed that Ford gave Rose the nickname after Rose, playing in left field, made an effort to climb the fence to try to catch a Mantle home run that everyone could see was headed over everything.

Rose made his major league debut on April 8, 1963 (Opening Day) against the Pittsburgh Pirates and drew a walk in his first plate appearance. After going 0-for-11, Rose got his first Major League hit on April 13, a triple off Pittsburgh's Bob Friend. He hit .273 for the year and won the National LeagueRookie of the Year Award, collecting 17 of 20 votes.[8]

Rose entered the US Army Reserves after the 1963 baseball season. He was assigned to Fort Knox for six months of active duty, which was followed by six years of regular attendance with a 478th Engineering Battalion USAR at Fort Thomas, Kentucky. At Fort Knox, he was a platoon guide and graduated from United States Army Basic Training January 18, 1964, one week before his marriage to Karolyn. Rose then remained at Fort Knox to assist the sergeant in training the next platoon and to help another sergeant train the Fort's baseball team. Later in his Fort Thomas service, Rose served as company cook which entailed coming in early for the one weekend/month meeting so that he could get out early enough to participate in local Reds games. Other Reds players in the unit included Johnny Bench, Bobby Tolan and Darrel Chaney.

Early years[edit]

On April 23, 1964, Rose reached first base on an error in the top of the ninth inning of a scoreless game in Colt Stadium and scored on another error. The Colt .45s lost the game in the bottom of the ninth inning and Ken Johnson became the first pitcher to lose a complete gameno-hitter. Rose slumped late in the season and was benched; he finished with a .269 average. In order to improve his batting, Rose played in the Venezuelan Winter League with Leones del Caracas team during 1964–1965 season. Rose came back in 1965, leading the league in hits (209) and at-bats (670), and finishing sixth in NL MVP balloting. It was the first of his ten seasons with 200-plus hits, and his .312 batting average was the first of nine consecutive .300 seasons. He hit a career-high 16 home runs in 1966, then switched positions from second base to right field the following year.

In 1968, Rose started the season with a 22-game hitting streak, missed three weeks (including the All-Star Game) with a broken thumb, then had a 19-game hit streak late in the season. He had to finish the season 6-for-9 to beat out Matty Alou and win the first of two close NL batting-title races with a .335 average. He finished second to St. Louis CardinalspitcherBob Gibson for the NL MVP award, earning six first place votes.

Rose had his best offensive season in 1969 (the year of the Miracle Mets), when he set a career-high in batting (.348) and tied his career-best 16 homers. As the Reds' leadoff man, he was the team's catalyst, rapping 218 hits, walking 88 times and pacing the league in runs with 120. He hit 33 doubles, 11 triples, drove in 82 runs, slugged .512 (by far the highest mark of his long career), and had a .432 OBP (also a career best). Rose and Roberto Clemente were tied for the batting title going into the final game; Rose bunted for a base hit in his last at-bat of the season to beat out Clemente (.345).

1970 All-Star game[edit]

Brand-new Riverfront Stadium had been open for only two weeks on July 14, 1970 when Rose was involved in one of the most infamous plays in All-Star Game history. Facing the California Angels' Clyde Wright in the 12th inning, Rose singled and advanced to second on another single by the Los Angeles Dodgers' Billy Grabarkewitz. The Chicago Cubs' Jim Hickman then singled sharply to center. Amos Otis' throw went past Cleveland Indians catcher Ray Fosse, as Rose barreled over Fosse to score the winning run. Fosse suffered a fractured and separated shoulder, which initially went undiagnosed until the following year.[9] Fosse continued to hit for average (he finished the season at .307), but with diminished power—he had 16 home runs before the break but only two after. He played through the 1979 season, but never approached his first-year numbers.[10] The collision also caused Rose to miss three games with a bruised knee.[9]

1973 season[edit]

In 1973, Rose led the league with 230 hits and a .338 batting average en route to winning the NL MVP award and leading "the Big Red Machine" to the 1973 National League Championship Series against the New York Mets.

During the fifth inning of Game 3 of the series, Rose was on first base when Joe Morgan hit a double play ball to Mets first baseman John Milner. Rose slid into second base in an attempt to break up the double play; this incited a fight with Mets shortstop Bud Harrelson that resulted in a bench-clearing brawl. When the Reds took the field, the game was nearly called off after the Shea Stadium crowd threw objects at Rose from the stands. The disruption caused Reds manager Sparky Anderson to pull his team off the field until order was restored. Mets Manager Yogi Berra and players Willie Mays, Tom Seaver, Cleon Jones, and Rusty Staub were actually summoned by NL President Chub Feeney out to left field to calm the fans. The Reds ended up losing that game, 9–2, and the NLCS, 3–2, despite Rose's .381 batting average in the series, and his eighth-inning home run to tie Game 1 and his 12th-inning home run to win Game 4.

The Big Red Machine[edit]

Main article: The Big Red Machine

The Cincinnati Reds of the 1970s earned the nickname "the Big Red Machine" and are widely acknowledged to be some of the greatest teams of all-time. Rose was on a team with many great players that included Hall of Famers Johnny Bench, Joe Morgan and Tony Pérez, and he was viewed as one of the club's leaders.

In 1975, Rose earned the Hickok Belt as the top professional athlete of the year as well as Sports Illustrated magazine's "Sportsman of the Year" award. The following year, he was a major force in helping the Reds repeat as World Series champions. The 1976 Reds swept the Phillies 3–0 in the 1976 National League Championship Series, then swept the Yankees 4–0 in the World Series. The 1976 Cincinnati Reds remain the only team since the expansion of the playoffs in 1969 to go undefeated in the postseason. The Reds have not lost a World Series game since the Boston Red Sox defeated them when Carlton Fisk hit an extra-inning home run in the 1975 World Series. The Reds won the next nine World Series games in which they have appeared (1975 Game 7, 1976 Games 1-4, and 1990 Games 1-4). Rose was a significant factor in the Reds' success in 1975 and 1976 when he successfully switched his primary position from the outfield to third base. This move filled a void at third base and helped to solidify the Reds team for these two championship seasons, because it enabled the team to make greater use of power hitting outfielder George Foster.

44-game hitting streak[edit]

On May 5, 1978, Rose became the 13th player in major league history to garner his 3,000th career hit when he singled off of Montreal Expos pitcher Steve Rogers. On June 14 in Cincinnati, Rose singled in the first inning off Cubs pitcher Dave Roberts; Rose would proceed to get a hit in every game he played until August 1, making a run at Joe DiMaggio's record 56-game hitting streak, which had stood virtually unchallenged for 37 years. The streak started quietly, but by the time it had reached 30 games, the media took notice and a pool of reporters accompanied Rose and the Reds to every game. On July 19 against the Philadelphia Phillies, Rose was hitless going into the eighth inning when he walked. His team was trailing in the ninth inning and the streak appeared over, but the Reds batted through their entire lineup and gave Rose another chance to bat. Rose faced Ron Reed and laid down a perfect bunt single to extend the streak to 32 games.

He would eventually tie Willie Keeler's 1897 single season National League record at 44 games, but the streak came to an end on August 1 when Gene Garber of the Atlanta Braves struck out Rose in the ninth inning.[11] With two outs and a full count, Garber decided not to challenge Rose with a fastball. He took full advantage of Rose's predicament by throwing him an off-speed pitch out of the strike zone, which Rose swung at and missed. Rose was sour after the game; he blasted Garber and the Braves for treating the situation "like it was the ninth inning of the seventh game of the World Series".[12] Garber was not insulted by Rose and took the comment as a compliment: "I said to myself, 'Well, thanks, Pete. That's how I try to pitch every time I'm in a game'."

Philadelphia Phillies (1979–83)[edit]

The Philadelphia Phillies had won the National League East three years running (1976–78)—two of which were won with 101 win seasons—but they were unable to make it to the World Series. In 1979, the Phillies believed that Rose was the player who could bring them over the top, and they temporarily made him the highest-paid athlete in team sports when they signed him to a four-year, $3.2-million contract as a free agent. With perennial All-Star Mike Schmidt firmly entrenched at third, Rose made the final position change of his career when he moved to first base.

Although the Phillies missed the postseason in Rose's first year with the team, they earned three division titles (one in the first half of the strike shortened 1981 season), two World Series appearances and their first ever World Series title (1980) in the following four years.

Rose had the worst season of his career in 1983, which was also the season that the Phillies played in their second World Series in four years. The 42-year-old Rose batted only .245 with 121 hits and found himself benched during the latter part of the 1983 season when he appeared periodically to play and pinch hit. Rose did blossom as a pinch-hitter, with 8 hits in 21 at-bats, a .381 average.

Rose bounced back during the postseason, batting .375 (6-for-16) during the NLCS against the Los Angeles Dodgers, and .312 (5-for-16) in the World Series against the Baltimore Orioles. Rose went 1-for-8 in the first two games in Baltimore and was benched for Game Three in Philadelphia, though he grounded out in a pinch-hitting appearance. Rose objected to manager Paul Owens' decision to bench him in a pre-game interview with Howard Cosell of ABC Sports. Rose bounced back with four hits in his last seven at-bats in the remaining two games, though the Phillies lost the Series to the Orioles, four games to one.

Montreal Expos (1984)[edit]

Rose was granted an unconditional release from the Phillies in late October 1983. Phillies management wanted to retain Rose for the 1984 season, but he refused to accept a more limited playing role. Months later, he signed a one-year contract with the Montreal Expos. On April 13, 1984, the 21st anniversary of his first career hit, Rose doubled off the Phillies' Jerry Koosman for his 4,000th career hit, becoming the second player in the 4000 hit club (joining Ty Cobb). Rose played 95 games with the Expos, having 72 hits and 23 RBIs while batting .259. On August 15, 1984, he was traded back to the Reds for infielder Tom Lawless.

The Hit King (1984–86)[edit]

Upon rejoining the Reds, he was immediately named player-manager, replacing Reds' manager Vern Rapp. Despite his .259 average for the season prior to joining the Reds, he hit .365 for the Reds in 26 games (with 35 hits and 11 RBIs), finishing with a .286 overall average - a 41-point improvement over the 1983 season. Furthermore, Rose managed the Reds to a 19–22 record for the remainder of the season.

On September 11, 1985, Rose broke Ty Cobb's all-time hits record with his 4,192nd hit, a single to left-center field off San Diego Padres pitcher Eric Show. According to the MLB.com web site, Major League Baseball continues to recognize Cobb's final hit total as 4,191, though independent research has revealed two of Cobb's hits were counted twice.[13][14] Because of this, it has been suggested Rose actually broke Cobb's record against the Cubs' Reggie Patterson with a single in the first inning of a Reds' 5–5 called game against Chicago on September 8. Because Rose broke Cobb's record, ABC's Wide World of Sports named Rose its Athlete of the Year that year. Rose accumulated a total of 4,256 hits before his final career at-bat, a strikeout against San Diego's Rich Gossage on August 17, 1986.

In 2010, Deadspin reported Rose used corked bats during his 1985 pursuit of Cobb's record. Two sports memorabilia collectors who owned Rose's game-used bats from that season had the bats x-rayed and found the telltale signs of corking.[15][16] Rose had previously denied using corked bats.[17]

Retirement as a player[edit]

On November 11, 1986, Rose was dropped from the Reds' 40-man roster to make room for pitcher Pat Pacillo, and he unofficially retired as a player. Rose finished his career with a number of Major League and National League records that have lasted for many years. Rose, always proud of his ability to hit .300 or better in 15 of his 24 playing seasons, had a lifetime .303 batting average.[18]

After retiring as a player, Rose remained with the Reds as a manager and led the team from August 15, 1984, until August 24, 1989. With a career record of 426–388 as a manager, Rose ranks fifth in Reds history for managerial wins.[19] During Rose's four full seasons at the helm (1985–1988), the Reds posted four second-place finishes in the NL West division.

Thirty-day suspension[edit]

On April 30, 1988, during a home game against the New York Mets, with two out in the top of the ninth inning, umpireDave Pallone made a late call at first base that allowed a runner to score from third base what would be the eventual game-winning run.[20] Rose vehemently argued the call and forcefully pushed the umpire. Rose, who only appeared to contact Pallone with his shoulder and forearm, told reporters after the game he shoved Pallone only after the umpire made contact with him; he said a scratch near his left eye proved Pallone touched him first. In his 1990 book, Pallone claimed that scratch was self-inflicted in the clubhouse after the ejection.[21] Cincinnati fans showered the field with objects that included radios and cigarette lighters. Reds' owner Marge Schott posted a message onto the electronic billboard, asking fans to stop throwing objects onto the field.

After a 15-minute suspension of play, Pallone left the field and the game was completed with the remaining three umpires. National League president A. Bartlett Giamatti suspended Rose for 30 days, which was the longest suspension ever levied for an on-field incident involving a manager. He also fined Rose "a substantial amount"; the actual amount was not disclosed. Giamatti also summoned the Reds' on-air radio announcers, Marty Brennaman and Joe Nuxhall, to his office in New York City and dressed them down for inciting the fan response with "inflammatory and completely irresponsible remarks" - at the time, it was common for fans at ballparks to listen to their teams' radio broadcasts using portable devices. Giamatti told Brennaman and Nuxhall, "There is no excuse for encouraging a situation where the physical safety and well-being of any individual is put significantly at risk. Nothing justifies such unprofessional behavior."[22]

Permanent ineligibility[edit]

Main article: Dowd Report

Amid reports that he had bet on baseball, Rose was informally questioned in February 1989 by Commissioner of BaseballPeter Ueberroth and NL President Bart Giamatti. Rose vehemently denied the allegations. By this time, MLB owners had elected Giamatti to succeed Ueberroth, and the outgoing Commissioner decided to leave the matter to be dealt with by his successor. In the meantime, Sports Illustrated gave the public their first detailed report of the allegations that Rose had placed bets on baseball games on March 21, 1989,[23] in the cover story of the issue dated April 3, 1989.[24] Giamatti assumed office as the seventh Commissioner of Baseball on April 1. Three days later, lawyer John M. Dowd was retained to investigate the charges against Rose.

Investigation[edit]

Dowd interviewed many of Rose's associates, including alleged bookies and bet runners. He delivered a summary of his findings to the Commissioner in May. In it, Dowd documented Rose's alleged gambling activities in 1985 and 1986 and compiled a day-by-day account of Rose's alleged betting on baseball games in 1987. The Dowd Report documented his alleged bets on 52 Reds games in 1987, where Rose wagered a minimum of $10,000 a day. Others alleged to have been involved in the activities claim that number was actually $2,000 a day.

Response[edit]

Rose continued to deny all of the accusations against him and refused to appear at a hearing with Giamatti on the matter. He filed a lawsuit in Hamilton County Common Pleas Court alleging that the Commissioner had prejudged the case and could not provide a fair hearing. A Cincinnati judge issued a temporary restraining order to delay the hearing, but Giamatti fought to have the case moved to Federal Court. The Commissioner prevailed in that effort, after which he and Rose entered settlement negotiations.

Aftermath[edit]

On August 24, 1989, Rose voluntarily accepted a permanent place on baseball's ineligible list.[25] Rose accepted that there was a factual reason for the ban; in return, Major League Baseball agreed to make no formal finding with regard to the gambling allegations. According to baseball's rules, Rose could apply for reinstatement in one year but Bart Giamatti said, "There is absolutely no deal for reinstatement. That is exactly what we did not agree to in terms of a fixed number of years." [26] Rose, with a 412–373 record, was replaced as Reds manager by Tommy Helms. Rose began therapy with a psychiatrist for treatment of a gambling addiction.

Giamatti died of a heart attack on September 1, 1989, eight days after announcing Rose's suspension.[27]

Betting for or against[edit]

The Dowd Report says, "no evidence was discovered that Rose bet against the Reds", but investigator Dowd stated in a December 2002 interview that he believed Rose probably bet against the Reds while managing them.[28] Those critical of Rose's behavior, including Ohio's own Hall of Fame baseball reporter, Hal McCoy, have observed that "the major problem with Rose betting on baseball, particularly the Reds, is that as manager he could control games, make decisions that could enhance his chances of winning his bets, thus jeopardizing the integrity of the game."[29] The Major League Baseball rule that Rose violated prohibits any bet on a game the bettor is involved in, making no distinction between betting for or against one's team. The rule is: "Rule 21 Misconduct, (d) Betting on Ball Games, Any player, umpire, or club, or league official, or employee, who shall bet any sum whatsoever upon any baseball game in connection with which the bettor has a duty to perform shall be declared permanently ineligible."[30]

Reinstatement efforts[edit]

In 1992, Rose applied for reinstatement. Fay Vincent, who as deputy commissioner had played a key role in negotiating the agreement banning Rose before becoming commissioner after Giamatti's death, never acted on Rose's application. In September 1998, Rose applied for reinstatement with Vincent's successor Bud Selig, but Selig also never acted on it.

In public comments, Selig said he saw no reason to reconsider Rose's punishment; however, in March 2003, Selig acknowledged that he was considering Rose's application, leading to speculation that Rose's return might be imminent.[31] Ultimately, however, Selig took no action.[32]

Representatives for Rose applied in 2015 for reinstatement with Selig's successor, Rob Manfred.[33] However, on December 15, 2015, Manfred rejected the request. Manfred stated that Rose had not been forthcoming about his gambling and that Rose (who by this time was living in Las Vegas) was still betting on baseball. Although Rose was placing legal bets by this time, MLB has long barred players, managers, and coaches from any form of gambling on baseball, legal or otherwise. He also felt that Rose did not have "a mature understanding of his wrongful conduct" and the damage it had done to the game. For these reasons, Manfred concluded that allowing him back in the game would be an "unacceptable risk."[34]

Tax evasion[edit]

On April 20, 1990, Rose pleaded guilty to two charges of filing false income tax returns not showing income he received from selling autographs and memorabilia and from horse racing winnings. On July 19, Rose was sentenced to five months in the medium security prison camp at the United States Penitentiary in Marion, Illinois, and fined $50,000.[35] Marion was the hometown of Ray Fosse, the catcher whom Rose bowled over during the All-Star game nearly twenty years prior, resulting in injuries that would plague Fosse for the rest of his career.[36] He was released on January 7, 1991, after having paid $366,041 in back taxes and interest and was required to perform 1,000 hours of community service.[37][38]

Hall of Fame eligibility[edit]

On February 4, 1991, the Hall of Fame voted formally to exclude individuals on the permanently ineligible list from being inducted into the Hall of Fame by way of the Baseball Writers' Association of America vote. However, a longstanding unwritten rule already barred permanently ineligible players from enshrinement. Rose and Jenrry Mejía are the only living former players on the ineligible list (although former executives Chris Correa and John Coppolella are also on the list for other infractions). Players who were not selected by the BBWAA could be considered by the Veterans Committee in the first year after they would have lost their place on the Baseball Writers' ballot. Under the Hall's rules, players may appear on the ballot for only fifteen years, beginning five years after they retire. Had he not been banned from baseball, Rose's name could have been on the writers' ballot beginning in 1992 and ending in 2006.[39] He would have been eligible for consideration by the Veterans Committee in 2007, but did not appear on the ballot.[40] In 2008, the Veterans Committee barred players and managers on the ineligible list from consideration.[41] Eight years later, Rose petitioned the Hall of Fame to permit his name to be submitted for induction, saying that he had not expected to be prevented from Hall of Fame consideration when agreeing to the lifetime ban.[42]

Although ineligible for Baseball Hall of Fame, Rose was inducted into the Cincinnati Reds Hall of Fame in 2016.[43]

MLB All-Century Team[edit]

In 1999, Rose was selected as an outfielder on the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. To select the team, a panel of experts first compiled a list of the 100 greatest players from the past century. Fans then voted on the players using paper and online ballots.

An exception was made to his ban to allow him to participate in the pre-game introduction of the All-Century team before Game 2 of the 1999 World Series between the Braves and Yankees. Despite never having been a member of the Braves, Rose received the loudest ovation of the All-Century team members from the crowd at Turner Field in Atlanta, Georgia.

After the ceremony on live television, NBC's Jim Gray repeatedly asked Rose if he was ready to admit to betting on baseball and apologize.[44][45][46] Many people were outraged over Gray's aggressive questioning, feeling that it detracted from the ceremony. In protest, Yankees outfielder Chad Curtis refused to speak with Gray after his game-winning home run in Game 3. Earlier that season, Rose had been ranked at number 25 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players.

In 2002, Rose again appeared during the 2002 World Series in a Master Card-sponsored event recalling "Baseball's Most Memorable Moments." Fans voted Rose's record-breaking hit over Ty Cobb as the 6th most memorable moment in baseball history.[citation needed]

While allowing him to participate in the All-Century Team, and a September 2010 celebration at Great American Ball Park of the 25th anniversary of Rose's 4,192nd hit,[47] MLB has refused to allow him to participate in other events in Cincinnati, such as the 25th anniversary reunion of the Big Red Machine, the closing of Cinergy Field, and the opening of Great American Ball Park, as well as the closing of Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia and 1980 Phillies anniversary celebrations. Since assuming office, Commissioner Manfred has taken a more relaxed attitude compared to Selig with respect to participation by Rose in MLB events that cannot influence play.

Coming clean[edit]

In his autobiography My Prison Without Bars, published by Rodale Press on January 8, 2004, Rose finally admitted publicly to betting on baseball games and other sports while playing for and managing the Reds. He also admitted to betting on Reds games, but said he never bet against the Reds. He repeated his admissions in an interview on the ABC news program Primetime Thursday. He also said in the book he hoped his admissions would help end his ban from baseball so he could reapply for reinstatement.

In March 2007, during an interview on The Dan Patrick Show on ESPN Radio, Rose said, "I bet on my team every night. I didn't bet on my team four nights a week. I bet on my team to win every night because I loved my team, I believed in my team", he said. "I did everything in my power every night to win that game."[48]

John Dowd disputed Rose's contention he bet on the Reds every night, asserting Rose did not bet on his team when Mario Soto or Bill Gullickson pitched.[49] However, Dowd's allegations did not match the records in his own report. A notebook detailing Rose's daily betting activity shows Rose placed bets on five of the six games Soto started in 1987.[50] The lone exception was April 26, 1987, when Rose allegedly placed bets on hockey and basketball games but no baseball games. Those records also show he bet on every game Gullickson started during the period which the betting notebook covered.

The criticism of Rose did not diminish after this admission—some Rose supporters were outraged Rose would reverse fifteen years of denial as part of a book publicity tour. In addition, the timing was called into question by making his admission just two days after the Baseball Hall of Fame announced its class of 2004 inductees, Rose appeared to be linking himself publicly to the Hall.

Even after his 2004 admission of gambling, Rose had described his violation of MLB rules with what journalist Kostya Kennedy described as "a kind of swagger, that familiar screw-you defiance". On September 11, 2010, however, at a roast of Rose held at Hollywood Casino Lawrenceburg in Indiana on the 25th anniversary of his 4,192nd hit and attended by many teammates, Rose wept while acknowledging he had "disrespected baseball". He apologized to Pérez and other members of the Big Red Machine, stating, "I guarantee everyone in this room I will never disrespect you again. I love the fans, I love the game of baseball, and I love Cincinnati baseball". His words and crying surprised those present; a Cincinnati Enquirer reporter said "It felt completely unscripted, completely sincere and very powerful. I had covered Rose for more than 25 years and hadn't ever heard him like that".[47]

WWE[edit]

Between 1998 and 2000, Rose appeared at World Wrestling Entertainment's annual WrestleMania pay-per-view event, in what became a running gag. At WrestleMania XIV he served as "guest ring announcer" during a match between Kane and the Undertaker, before which he took a Tombstone Piledriver from Kane.[51] For the next year's WrestleMania XV, Rose was portrayed as seeking revenge. To do so, he dressed as the San Diego Chicken and "attacked" Kane before his scheduled match, only to take another Tombstone.[52] He returned for a third time the following year, at WrestleMania 2000, but again was thwarted by Kane, as well as Rikishi, his tag team partner that night.

In addition to these three appearances, he appeared in a Halloween-themed commercial for WWE's No Mercy event in 2002 and was chokeslammed by Kane. In 2004, Rose was inducted into the "Celebrity Wing" of the WWE Hall of Fame.[53] He was the first celebrity to go into the Hall, and was inducted at a ceremony prior to WrestleMania XX by Kane himself.[54]

On March 22, 2010, he was the guest host on WWE Raw, which was the last episode of Raw before WrestleMania XXVI. As his first order of business, he set up a match between Shawn Michaels and Kane, which Michaels won. Later that night, Kane attacked Rose offscreen.

Rose was briefly mentioned on WWE television again on August 27, 2012. In an anger management segment, Kane stated "for reasons never quite explained, I have an unhealthy obsession with torturing Pete Rose." Rose was later interviewed on WWE.com about his experiences with Kane's anger.[55]

Fox Sports analyst[edit]

On April 16, 2015, it was announced that Rose had been hired by Fox Sports to serve as a guest studio color analyst for MLB coverage on Fox and Fox Sports 1, appearing on the MLB on Fox pregame show as well as MLB Whiparound, America's Pregame, and Fox Sports Live.[56] He made his Fox Sports 1 debut on May 11, 2015.

Personal life[edit]

Rose married Karolyn Englehardt on January 25, 1964, and the couple had two children, daughter Fawn (b. 1964) and son Pete Rose Jr. (b. 1969). The couple divorced in 1980. In 1978, a paternity suit was filed naming Rose as the father of Morgan Erin Rubio. In a 1996 settlement of the lawsuit, Rose acknowledged that Rubio was his daughter.[57]

Rose married his second wife, Carol J. Woliung, in 1984. They have two children, son Tyler (b. 1984) and daughter Cara (b. 1989). Rose finalized his divorce from Carol in March 2011. The 69-year-old Rose cited irreconcilable differences for the split, but his petition did not offer any additional details. Rose did not include a date for their separation. Documents in the filing say that Rose is looking to acquire all memorabilia and other possessions before the marriage.[58]

While separated from his second wife, Rose began an open relationship with Kiana Kim, a Playboy model. During a 2009 interview, Rose discussed his relationship with Kim, stating, "My girl has finally decided to try to shoot for Playboy, and they were kind enough to give her an opportunity to come to Houston for an interview, and we're excited about that." A reality show called Pete Rose: Hits & Mrs., following the life of Rose and Kim, and his two stepchildren Cassie and Ashton premiered on TLC on January 14, 2013.[59][60] Rose and Kim have been engaged since 2011. They appeared on a national Sketchers commercial which aired during the 2014 Super Bowl.

Two of Rose's children have lived public lives. Cara has worked as a television actress, appearing as a regular in the first season of the soap opera Passions and playing a recurring role on Melrose Place. She uses the stage name "Chea Courtney".[61][62] His older son, Pete Rose, Jr., spent 16 years as a minor league baseball player, advancing to the majors once for an 11-game stint with the Cincinnati Reds in 1997.

As of March 2014[update] Rose earns more than $1 million annually from many paid public appearances and autograph signings. These include appearances in Cooperstown, New York, around the time of the Hall of Fame induction weekend each year. Although Rose does not stay at the Otesaga Resort Hotel with other baseball people and cannot attend the ceremonies, many fans gather for his autograph.[47]

Rose filed a defamation suit against attorney John M. Dowd in July 2016 after comments Dowd made in a radio interview last summer; the comments alluded that Rose had engaged in statutory rape.[63] A court document during the suit was released in July 2017 with a sworn statement alleging Rose had engaged in a sexual relationship with a minor in the 1970s.[64] In light of these new allegations, the Phillies cancelled his upcoming Philadelphia Baseball Wall of Fame ceremony.[65] On December 15, 2017, a judge dismissed the defamation lawsuit when both parties reached an agreement.[66]

Records and achievements[edit]

  • Major League records:
    • Most career winning games played– 1,972
    • Most career games played– 3,562
    • Only player to play at least 500 games at five different positions– 1B (939), LF (671), 3B (634), 2B (628), RF (595)
    • Most career at bats– 14,053
    • Most career singles– 3,215
    • Most career hits– 4,256
    • Most career outs– 10,328
    • Most career runs by a switch hitter– 2,165
    • Most career doubles by a switch hitter– 746
    • Most career walks by a switch hitter– 1,566
    • Most career total bases by a switch hitter– 5,752
    • Most seasons of 200 or more hits– 10 (shared)
    • Most consecutive seasons of 100 or more hits– 23
    • Most consecutive seasons with 600 or more at bats– 13 (1968–1980) (shared)
    • Most seasons with 600 at bats– 17
    • Most seasons with 150 or more games played– 17
    • Most seasons with 100 or more games played– 23
  • National League records:
    • Most years played– 24
    • Most consecutive years played– 24
    • Most career runs– 2,165
    • Most career doubles– 746
    • Most career games with 5 or more hits– 10
    • Modern (post-1900) NL record for longest consecutive-game hitting streak NL– 44
    • Modern record for most hitting streaks of 20 or more consecutive games– 7

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Guinness World Records. London; New York City: HiT Entertainment. 2007. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-9735514-4-0. 
  2. ^"The Baseball Archive presents The Dowd Report". baseball1.com. May 9, 1989. Archived from the original on February 16, 2003. 
  3. ^Weinbaum, William; Quinn, T.J. (June 22, 2015). "Entries in long-hidden notebook show Pete Rose bet on baseball as player". ESPN. Retrieved June 23, 2015. 
  4. ^Goodman, Rebecca (2005). This Day in Ohio History. Emmis Books. p. 120. Retrieved November 21, 2013. 
  5. ^William Leggett (May 27, 1968). "Charlie Hustle Gives Twelve Dimes On The Dollar". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved July 29, 2013. 
  6. ^Bob Carter. "Hustle made Rose respected, infamous". ESPN. 
  7. ^Joe Kay (April 13, 2013). "Pete Rose brought hustle, first hit 50 years ago". philly.com. 
  8. ^"1963 Awards Voting". Baseball Reference. 
  9. ^ abMiller, Scott (July 11, 2013). "Fosse still aching, but not bitter 43 years after All-Star Game collision". CBS Sports. Retrieved July 13, 2013. 
  10. ^The Daily Star July 12, 2003
  11. ^
Rose walks onto the field with the Cincinnati Reds
Jun 22, 2015
  • William Weinbaum and T.J. Quinn

For 26 years, Pete Rose has kept to one story: He never bet on baseball while he was a player.

Yes, he admitted in 2004, after almost 15 years of denials, he had placed bets on baseball, but he insisted it was only as a manager.

ON OUTSIDE THE LINES TODAY

T.J. Quinn reports on the notebook that shows Pete Rose bet on baseball as a player, at 2:30 p.m. ET Monday on ESPN.

But new documents obtained by Outside the Lines indicate Rose bet extensively on baseball -- and on the Cincinnati Reds -- as he racked up the last hits of a record-smashing career in 1986. The documents go beyond the evidence presented in the 1989 Dowd report that led to Rose's banishment and provide the first written record that Rose bet while he was still on the field.

"This does it. This closes the door," said John Dowd, the former federal prosecutor who led MLB's investigation.

Editor's Picks

The documents are copies of pages from a notebook seized from the home of former Rose associate Michael Bertolini during a raid by the U.S. Postal Inspection Service in October 1989, nearly two months after Rose was declared permanently ineligible by Major League Baseball. Their authenticity has been verified by two people who took part in the raid, which was part of a mail fraud investigation and unrelated to gambling. For 26 years, the notebook has remained under court-ordered seal and is currently stored in the National Archives' New York office, where officials have declined requests to release it publicly.

Rose, through his lawyer, Raymond Genco, issued a statement: "Since we submitted the application earlier this year, we committed to MLB that we would not comment on specific matters relating to reinstatement. I need to maintain that. To be sure, I'm eager to sit down with [MLB commissioner Rob] Manfred to address my entire history -- the good and the bad -- and my long personal journey since baseball. That meeting likely will come sometime after the All-Star break. Therefore at this point, it's not appropriate to comment on any specifics." Bertolini's lawyer, Nicholas De Feis, said his client is "not interested in speaking to anyone about these issues."

Dowd, who reviewed the documents at Outside the Lines' request, said his investigators had tried but failed to obtain Bertolini's records, believing they would be the final piece in their case that Rose was betting with mob-connected bookmakers in New York. Dowd and his team had sworn testimony from bookie Ron Peters that Rose bet on the Reds from 1984 through 1986, but not written documentation. Dowd also had testimony and a recorded phone conversation between Bertolini and another Rose associate, Paul Janszen, that established that Bertolini had placed bets for Rose. But Dowd never had the kind of documents that could cement that part of his case, especially in the eyes of fans who wanted to see Rose returned to Major League Baseball.

"We knew that [Bertolini] recorded the bets, and that he bet himself, but we never had his records. We tried to get them. He refused to give them to us," Dowd said. "This is the final piece of the puzzle on a New York betting operation with organized crime. And, of course, [Rose] betting while he was a player."

The documents obtained by Outside the Lines, which reflect betting records from March through July 1986, show no evidence that Rose, who was a player-manager in 1986, bet against his team. They provide a vivid snapshot of how extensive Rose's betting life was in 1986:

• In the time covered in the notebook, from March through July, Rose bet on at least one MLB team on 30 different days. It's impossible to count the exact number of times he bet on baseball games because not every day's entries are legible.

• But on 21 of the days it's clear he bet on baseball, he gambled on the Reds, including on games in which he played.

• Most bets, regardless of sport, were about $2,000. The largest single bet was $5,500 on the Boston Celtics, a bet he lost.

• Rose bet heavily on college and professional basketball, losing $15,400 on one day in March. That came during his worst week of the four-month span, when he lost $25,500.

Dowd said he wished he'd had the Bertolini notebook in 1989, but he didn't need it to justify Rose's banishment. Under MLB Rule 21, "Any player, umpire, or club or league official or employee, who shall bet any sum whatsoever upon any baseball game in connection with which the bettor has a duty to perform shall be declared permanently ineligible."

But Rose's supporters have based part of their case for his reinstatement on his claim that he never bet while he was a player or against his team, saying that sins he committed as a manager shouldn't diminish what he did as a player.

"The rule says, if you bet, it doesn't say for or against. It's another device by Pete to try to excuse what he did," Dowd said. "But when he bet, he was gone. He placed his financial interest ahead of the Reds, period."

The timing for Rose, who played in 72 games in 1986, isn't great. In March of this year, he applied to Manfred for reinstatement. Dowd recently met with MLB CIO and executive vice president of administration John McHale Jr., who is leading Manfred's review of Rose's reinstatement request, to walk McHale through his investigation. On Monday morning, MLB officials declined to comment about the notebook.

In April, Rose repeated his denial, this time on Michael Kay's ESPN New York 98.7 FM radio show, that he bet on baseball while he was a player. "Never bet as a player: That's a fact," he said.

Outside the Lines tracked down two of the postal inspectors who conducted the raid on Bertolini's home in 1989 and asked them to review the documents. Both agents, former supervisor Craig Barney and former inspector Mary Flynn, said the records were indeed copies of the notebook they seized.

When the case began, it didn't look particularly enticing, Barney said. The postal inspector's office in Brooklyn, New York, had received a complaint that a man in Staten Island had failed to return goods to paying customers that he was supposed to have autographed. The man's name was Michael Bertolini, and the business he ran out of his home was called Hit King Marketing Inc.

"It was a mere 'failure to render [services]' complaint," said Barney, who is now retired. "We didn't know anything about Bertolini or his connection [to Rose]."

If the accusation was true, it would constitute mail fraud, but the agents had no probable cause to search Bertolini's house.

Barney sent an agent to drive by the address. There was a for sale sign out front, the agent told him. So Barney and Flynn, posing as a couple looking for a home, called a real estate agent and were given a guided tour of Bertolini's house. "It was such a mess. There was stuff everywhere," Barney said.

Bats, balls, books and papers were scattered all over. It looked to them as if Bertolini had been signing memorabilia with the forged names of some of the most famous baseball players in history: Willie Mays, Hank Aaron, Duke Snider, Mike Schmidt and Pete Rose. "It reeked of fraud," Barney said.

The two inspectors spotted an item that a complainant said had not been returned. That gave them probable cause to seek a search warrant.

On Oct. 13, a few days after the undercover house tour and after obtaining a search warrant, they searched Bertolini's home and found evidence that would lead to numerous convictions. But one item stood out: In a box of papers in the basement, Barney said, was a spiral notebook filled with handwritten entries.

It was immediately clear that the many notations of "PETE" in the pages represented Pete Rose.

"There were numbers and dates and -- it was a book for sports betting," Barney said. "I was taken aback."

Flynn, who said her first reaction was "Holy mackerel," said they asked Bertolini about the notebook.

"He wasn't forthcoming with much information," she said, "but he did acknowledge to me it was records of bets he made for Pete Rose."

Bertolini offered his take on the raid during his sentencing hearing in U.S. District Court in Brooklyn six years later (he served 14 months for tax fraud and a concurrent assault sentence):

"I got a call at the place where I was working at the time from my brother, and he says, 'You should come home.' He said, 'There's a bunch of government people here, and they're here for you.' At the time, I think it was Mary Flynn of the postal inspector's office who got on the phone and said, 'We're here,' and she told me why and so forth. They took any records I had whatsoever, and they took different personal belongings and memorabilia from my home."

Although the 1989 raid on Bertolini's house received immediate news coverage, nothing about a betting book became public for five years. After Bertolini pleaded guilty and received a federal prison sentence, Sports Illustrated, The New York Times, ESPN and other news organizations filed freedom of information requests with the U.S. Attorney's Office seeking access to the book. All were denied on the grounds that the notebook had been introduced as a grand jury exhibit and contained information "concerning third parties who were not of investigative interest."

Last year, Outside the Lines again applied unsuccessfully for access to the notebook but learned it had been transferred to the National Archives under a civil action titled "United States v. One Executive Tools Spiral Notebook." Two small boxes of other items confiscated in the postal raid on Bertolini's house went too, including autographed baseballs and baseball cards.

In April, Outside the Lines examined the Bertolini memorabilia kept in the National Archives' New York office, but the betting book -- held apart from everything else -- was off-limits. The U.S. Attorney's Office internal memorandum from 2000 that requested the spiral notebook's transfer said Bertolini's closed file has "sufficient historical or other value to warrant its continued preservation by the United States Government." The memorandum listed among its attachments a copy of the notebook, but a copy of the memorandum provided by the National Archives had no attachments and had a section redacted.

"I wish I had been able to use it [the book] all those years he was denying he bet on baseball," said Flynn, the former postal inspector. "He's a liar."

To Dowd, one of the most compelling elements of the newly uncovered evidence is that it supports the charge that Rose was betting with mob-connected bookies through Bertolini. Dowd's investigation had established that Rose was hundreds of thousands of dollars in debt at the time he was banished from the game.

"Bertolini nails down the connection to organized crime on Long Island and New York. And that is a very powerful problem," Dowd said. "[Ohio bookie] Ron Peters is a golf pro, so he's got other occupations. But the boys in New York are about breaking arms and knees.

"The implications for baseball are terrible. [The mob] had a mortgage on Pete while he was a player and manager."

Freelance researcher Liam Quinn contributed to this report.

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