The limiting factor in transfer speed over most WANs—from low-bandwidth up to 1 Gbps—is usually the network transport protocol (such as TCP), which typically underperforms significantly on high-loss, high-latency networks. In some cases, servers initiating transfers can also be a limiting factor and the transfer speed can thus be bound by CPU, RAM, and/or Disk I/O on server hosts. At speeds over 1 Gbps, the bottleneck may further shift from the server host to the storage disk controller or NAS head, depending on the storage system and configuration.
Aspera has teamed up with industry-leading storage companies to enable ultra-fast transfers on multi-Gbps WANs and provided joint file transfer and data replication solutions. The test results under typical scenarios using popular storage from Aspera storage partners—NAS and SAN, are documented in the white paper, Ultra High-speed Transport: The Future of Wide Area Data Movement. The scenarios were:
In this scenario, a server host running Aspera Enterprise Server mounted a NAS via NFS. Data was pulled into memory over NFS and transferred over the WAN to a remote host running an identical configuration. In the Aspera host, one 10GbE NIC is used for I/O with the storage appliance, and another 10GbE NIC is used for WAN data transfer.
The Aspera host accesses the NAS storage over a hybrid NAS protocol, where metadata traverses NFS but the actual data stream moves over fiber channel. Each Aspera host uses one 10GbE NIC for metadata transfers with the storage system, a fiber channel host adapter to transfer the block-based data stream with the storage system, and a 10GbE NIC for the WAN data path.
Clustered Storage (Scale-out NAS)
The Aspera software runs natively on the storage cluster, reading and writing data directly to and from its file system, and transferring the data over the WAN to Aspera software running on a remote cluster.
Proof of Concept Results
This section documents performance results among the three storage configurations. The reader should be aware that each storage vendor provided only one class of devices within their product lines, and thus the devices may not represent comparable product configurations and the throughput differences should not be used to conclude any specific performance comparisons among the storage system architectures. The results are intended to demonstrate the capability for breakthrough transfer speeds and the best practices for achieving these with each storage system.
Figure 1 presents the overall performance ofFASP® with different storage appliances and under varied WAN conditions. For an easy comparison with other transmission protocols, we also append SCP, RSYNC, FTP and theoretical TCP throughput data.
Figure 1 — Summary of FASPthroughput versus latency and packet loss, as compared to TCP-based transfer tools for a 10 Gbps WAN
The comparison of FASP, SCP, RSYNC, FTP and TCP in Figure 1 demonstrates that FASP eliminates the TCP bottleneck for the bulk data transmissions and improves the throughput by a factor of up to thousands. Perhaps even more important, FASP transfer speeds are relatively constant over network WAN conditions ranging from 0 ms to 300 ms round-trip latency, and 0% packet loss to 5% packet loss. TCP-based protocols drop by a factor of 1000X over the same conditions.
Details of throughputs obtained with the various storage configurations are shown below. The overall throughputs below 2 Gbps for the majority of transfers in tables (b) and (c) reach the limit of single CPU core’s processing capacity for a reader or writer (as verified with Top). FASP provides an option to run parallel concurrent sessions to transfer one file or file set, where each session transfers a portion of the data and uses one CPU core, to take advantage of multiple-core architectures and achieve higher throughputs. Tables (d) and (e) show the improved overall throughput obtained by running FASP in this mode, with 4-8 transfer sessions.
Tables (a) through (c): FASP Throughputs on NAS, Hybrid NAS (HNAS) and Cluster over varied WAN conditions.
(a) Single large file, 1 Gbps WAN performance
(b) Single large file, multi-Gbps WAN performance
(c) Small files with 5MB mean size, multi-Gbps WAN performance
Tables (d) and (e): FASP throughput for a single large file on NAS, Hybrid NAS (HNAS) and Cluster over varied WAN conditions with 4-8 session
(d) Single large file, 1 Gbps WAN performance
(e) Small files with 5MB mean size, multi-Gbps WAN performance
Summary of results
In summary, the test results demonstrate the advantage of Aspera FASP for transferring large data sets over WANs (under typical conditions) using popular systems from leading storage vendors. The configurations demonstrate data transmission for three scenarios: classic NAS, Hybrid NAS, and cluster-to-cluster. The results include single and concurrent transfer speeds for single files or aggregate small files for varied WAN conditions from 10ms to 300ms RTT and 0% to 5% packet loss ratios.
With the proper infrastructure, FASP is capable of moving a petabyte of data on a daily basis over commodity global IP networks (1PB/24hr=104.2 Gbps which requires approximate 50 FASP transfers at 2.1 Gbps globally).
The complete results are documented in the white paper, Ultra High-speed Transport: The Future of Wide Area Data Movement.
This is a list of interface bit rates, is a measure of information transfer rates, or digital bandwidth capacity, at which digital interfaces in a computer or network can communicate over various kinds of buses and channels. The distinction can be arbitrary between a computer bus, often closer in space, and larger telecommunications networks. Many device interfaces or protocols (e.g., SATA, USB, SAS, PCIe) are used both inside many-device boxes, such as a PC, and one-device-boxes, such as a hard drive enclosure. Accordingly, this page lists both the internal ribbon and external communications cable standards together in one sortable table.
Factors limiting actual performance, criteria for real decisions
Most of the listed rates are theoretical maximum throughput measures; in practice, the actual effective throughput is almost inevitably lower in proportion to the load from other devices (network/bus contention), physical or temporal distances, and other overhead in data link layer protocols etc. The maximum goodput (for example, the file transfer rate) may be even lower due to higher layer protocol overhead and data packet retransmissions caused by line noise or interference such as crosstalk, or lost packets in congested intermediate network nodes. All protocols lose something, and the more robust ones that deal resiliently with very many failure situations tend to lose more maximum throughput to get higher total long term rates.
Device interfaces where one bus transfers data via another will be limited to the throughput of the slowest interface, at best. For instance, SATA 6G controllers on one PCIe 5G channel will be limited to the 5G rate and have to employ more channels to get around this problem. Early implementations of new protocols very often have this kind of problem. The physical phenomena on which the device relies (such as spinning platters in a hard drive) will also impose limits; for instance, no spinning platter shipping in 2009 saturates SATA II (3 Gbit/s), so moving from this 3 Gbit/s interface to USB3 at 4.8 Gbit/s for one spinning drive will result in no increase in realized transfer rate.
Contention in a wireless or noisy spectrum, where the physical medium is entirely out of the control of those who specify the protocol, requires measures that also use up throughput. Wireless devices, BPL, and modems may produce a higher line rate or gross bit rate, due to error-correcting codes and other physical layer overhead. It is extremely common for throughput to be far less than half of theoretical maximum, though the more recent technologies (notably BPL) employ preemptive spectrum analysis to avoid this and so have much more potential to reach actual gigabit rates in practice than prior modems.
Another factor reducing throughput is deliberate policy decisions made by Internet service providers that are made for contractual, risk management, aggregation saturation, or marketing reasons. Examples are rate limiting, bandwidth throttling, and the assignment of IP addresses to groups. These practices tend to minimize the throughput available to every user, but maximize the number of users that can be supported on one backbone.
Furthermore, chips are often not available in order to implement the fastest rates. AMD, for instance, does not support the 32-bit HyperTransport interface on any CPU it has shipped as of the end of 2009. Additionally, WiMAX service providers in the US typically support only up to 4 Mbit/s as of the end of 2009.
Choosing service providers or interfaces based on theoretical maxima is unwise, especially for commercial needs. A good example is large scale data centers, which should be more concerned with price per port to support the interface, wattage and heat considerations, and total cost of the solution. Because some protocols such as SCSI and Ethernet now operate many orders of magnitude faster than when originally deployed, scalability of the interface is one major factor, as it prevents costly shifts to technologies that are not backward compatible. Underscoring this is the fact that these shifts often happen involuntarily or by surprise, especially when a vendor abandons support for a proprietary system.
By convention, bus and network data rates are denoted either in bits per second (bit/s) or bytes per second (B/s). In general, parallel interfaces are quoted in B/s and serial in bit/s. The more commonly used is shown below in bold type.
On devices like modems, bytes may be more than 8 bits long because they may be individually padded out with additional start and stop bits; the figures below will reflect this. Where channels use line codes (such as Ethernet, Serial ATA and PCI Express), quoted rates are for the decoded signal.
The figures below are simplex data rates, which may conflict with the duplex rates vendors sometimes use in promotional materials. Where two values are listed, the first value is the downstream rate and the second value is the upstream rate.
All quoted figures are in metric decimal units. Note that these aren't the traditional binary prefixes for memory size. These decimal prefixes have long been established in data communications. This occurred before 1998 when IEC and other organizations introduced new binary prefixes and attempted to standardize their use across all computing applications.
The figures below are grouped by network or bus type, then sorted within each group from lowest to highest bandwidth; gray shading indicates a lack of known implementations.
Time Signal Station to Radio Clock
Teletypewriter (TTY) or telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD)
|TTY (V.18)||7001454545000000000♠45.4545 bit/s||6 characters/s||?|
|TTY (V.18)||7001500000000000000♠50 bit/s||6.6 characters/s||?|
|NTSC Line 21 Closed Captioning||7003100000000000000♠1 kbit/s||~100 characters/s||?|
Modems (narrowband and broadband)
Narrowband (POTS: 3.1 kHz channel)
|Technology||Rate||Rate ex. overhead||Year|
|Morse code (skilled operator)||7001210000000000000♠0.021 kbit/s||7000400000000000000♠4 characters per second (7001400000000000000♠~40 wpm)||1844|
|Modem 110 baud (Bell 101)||7002110000000000000♠0.11 kbit/s||7001800000000000000♠0.010 kB/s (~10 cps)||1959|
|Modem 300 (300 baud; Bell 103 or V.21)||7002300000000000000♠0.3 kbit/s||7002240000000000000♠0.03 kB/s (~30 cps)||1962|
|Modem 1200/75 (600 baud; V.23)||7003120000000000000♠1.2/0.075 kbit/s||7002960000000000000♠0.12/0.0075 kB/s (~120 cps)||1964(?)|
|Modem 1200 (600 baud; Vadic VA3400, Bell 212A, or V.22)||7003120000000000000♠1.2 kbit/s||7002960000000000000♠0.12 kB/s (~120 cps)||1976|
|Modem 2400 (600 baud; V.22bis)||7003240000000000000♠2.4 kbit/s||7003240000000000000♠0.3 kB/s||1984|
|Modem 4800/75 (1600 baud; V.27ter)||7003480000000000000♠4.8/0.075 kbit/s||7003480000000000000♠0.6/0.0075 kB/s||1976|
|Modem 9600 (2400 baud; V.32)||7003960000000000000♠9.6 kbit/s||7003960000000000000♠1.2 kB/s||1984 |
|Modem 14.4 (2400 baud; V.32bis)||7004144000000000000♠14.4 kbit/s||7004144000000000000♠1.8 kB/s||1991|
|Modem 28.8 (3200 baud; V.34-1994)||7004288000000000000♠28.8 kbit/s||7004288000000000000♠3.6 kB/s||1994|
|Modem 33.6 (3429 baud; V.34-1996/98)||7004336000000000000♠33.6 kbit/s||7004336000000000000♠4.2 kB/s||1996|
|Modem 56k (8000/3429 baud; V.90)||7004560000000000000♠56.0/33.6 kbit/s||7004560000000000000♠7/4.2 kB/s||1998|
|Modem 56k (8000/8000 baud; V.92)||7004560000000000000♠56.0/48.0 kbit/s||7004560000000000000♠7/6 kB/s||2001|
|Modem data compression (variable; V.92/V.44)||7004560000000000000♠56.0–320.0 kbit/s||7004560000000000000♠7–40 kB/s||2000|
|ISP-side text/image compression (variable)||7004560000000000000♠56.0–1000.0 kbit/s||7004560000000000000♠7–125 kB/s||1998|
|ISDNBasic Rate Interface (single/dual channel)||7004640000000000000♠64/128 kbit/s||7004640000000000000♠8/16 kB/s||1986|
|IDSL (dual ISDN + 16 kbit/s data channels)||7005144000000000000♠144 kbit/s||7005144000000000000♠18 kB/s||2000|
Broadband (hundreds of kHz wide)
|Technology||Rate||Rate ex. overhead||Year|
|ADSL (G.lite)||7006153600000000000♠1536/512 kbit/s||7006153600000000000♠192/64 kB/s||1998|
|HDSL ITU G.991.1 a.k.a. DS1||7006154400000000000♠1544 kbit/s||7006154400000000000♠193 kB/s||1998|
|MSDSL||7006200000000000000♠2000 kbit/s||7006200000000000000♠250 kB/s||?|
|SDSL||7006232000000000000♠2320 kbit/s||7006232000000000000♠290 kB/s||?|
|SHDSL ITU G.991.2||7006569000000000000♠5690 kbit/s||7006568800000000000♠711 kB/s||2001|
|ADSL (G.dmt) ITU G.992.1||7006819200000000000♠8192/1024 kbit/s||7006819200000000000♠1024/128 kB/s||1999|
|ADSL2 ITU G.992.3||7007122880000000000♠12288/1440 kbit/s||7007122880000000000♠1536/180 kB/s||2002|
|ADSL2+ ITU G.992.5||7007245760000000000♠24576/3584 kbit/s||7007245760000000000♠3072/448 kB/s||2003|
|DOCSIS 1.0 (cable modem)||7007380000000000000♠38/9 Mbit/s||7007380000000000000♠4.75/1.125 MB/s||1997|
|DOCSIS 2.0 (cable modem)||7007380000000000000♠38/27 Mbit/s||7007380000000000000♠4.75/3.375 MB/s||2002|
|VDSL ITU G.993.1||7007520000000000000♠52 Mbit/s||7007560000000000000♠7 MB/s||2001|
|VDSL2 ITU G.993.2||7008100000000000000♠100 Mbit/s||7008100000000000000♠12.5 MB/s||2006|
|Uni-DSL||7008200000000000000♠200 Mbit/s||7008200000000000000♠25 MB/s||2006|
|VDSL2 ITU G.993.2 Amendment 1 (11/15)||7008300000000000000♠300 Mbit/s||7008300000000000000♠37.5 MB/s||2015|
|BPON (G.983) fiber optic service||7008622000000000000♠622/155 Mbit/s||7008621600000000000♠77.7/19.3 MB/s||2005|
|G.fast ITU G.9700||7009100000000000000♠1000 Mbit/s||7009100000000000000♠125 MB/s||2014|
|EPON (802.3ah) fiber optic service||7009100000000000000♠1000/1000 Mbit/s||7009100000000000000♠125/125 MB/s||2008|
|DOCSIS 3.0 (cable modem)||7009121600000000000♠1216/216 Mbit/s||7009121600000000000♠152/27 MB/s||2006|
|GPON (G.984) fiber optic service||7009248800000000000♠2488/1244 Mbit/s||7009248800000000000♠311/155.5 MB/s||2008|
|DOCSIS 3.1 (cable modem)||7010100000000000000♠10/2 Gbit/s||7010100000000000000♠1.25/0.25 GB/s||2013|
|10G-PON (G.987) fiber optic service||7010100000000000000♠10/2.5 Gbit/s||7010100000000000000♠1.25/0.3125 GB/s||2012|
|XGS-PON (G.9807.1) fiber optic service||7010100000000000000♠10/10 Gbit/s||7010100000000000000♠1.25/1.25 GB/s||2016|
|DOCSIS 3.1 Full Duplex (cable modem)||7010100000000000000♠10/10 Gbit/s||7010100000000000000♠1.25/1.25 GB/s||2017|
|NG-PON2 (G.989) fiber optic service||7010400000000000000♠40/10 Gbit/s||7010400000000000000♠5/1.25 GB/s||2015|
Mobile telephone interfaces
|Technology||Download rate||Upload rate||Year|
|GSMCSD (2G)||7004144000000000000♠14.4 kbit/s||7004144000000000000♠1.8 kB/s||7004144000000000000♠14.4 kbit/s||7004144000000000000♠1.8 kB/s|
|HSCSD||7004576000000000000♠57.6 kbit/s||7004432000000000000♠5.4 kB/s||7004144000000000000♠14.4 kbit/s||7004144000000000000♠1.8 kB/s|
|GPRS (2.5G)||7004576000000000000♠57.6 kbit/s||7004576000000000000♠7.2 kB/s||7004288000000000000♠28.8 kbit/s||7004288000000000000♠3.6 kB/s|
|WiDEN||7005100000000000000♠100 kbit/s||7005100000000000000♠12.5 kB/s||7005100000000000000♠100 kbit/s||7005100000000000000♠12.5 kB/s|
|CDMA2000 1×RTT||7005153000000000000♠153 kbit/s||7005144000000000000♠18 kB/s||7005153000000000000♠153 kbit/s||7005144000000000000♠18 kB/s|
|EDGE (2.75G) (type 1 MS)||7005236800000000000♠236.8 kbit/s||7005236800000000000♠29.6 kB/s||7005236800000000000♠236.8 kbit/s||7005236800000000000♠29.6 kB/s||2002|
|UMTS3G||7005384000000000000♠384 kbit/s||7005384000000000000♠48 kB/s||7005384000000000000♠384 kbit/s||7005384000000000000♠48 kB/s|
|EDGE (type 2 MS)||7005473600000000000♠473.6 kbit/s||7005473600000000000♠59.2 kB/s||7005473600000000000♠473.6 kbit/s||7005473600000000000♠59.2 kB/s|
|EDGE Evolution (type 1 MS)||7006118400000000000♠1184 kbit/s||7006118400000000000♠148 kB/s||7005474000000000000♠474 kbit/s||7005472000000000000♠59 kB/s|
|EDGE Evolution (type 2 MS)||7006189400000000000♠1894 kbit/s||7006189600000000000♠237 kB/s||7005947000000000000♠947 kbit/s||7005944000000000000♠118 kB/s|
|1×EV-DO rev. 0||7006245700000000000♠2457 kbit/s||7006245760000000000♠307.2 kB/s||7005153000000000000♠153 kbit/s||7005152000000000000♠19 kB/s|
|1×EV-DO rev. A||7006310000000000000♠3.1 Mbit/s||7006317600000000000♠397 kB/s||7006180000000000000♠1.8 Mbit/s||7006184000000000000♠230 kB/s|
|1×EV-DO rev. B||7007147000000000000♠14.7 Mbit/s||7007146960000000000♠1837 kB/s||7006540000000000000♠5.4 Mbit/s||7006540000000000000♠675 kB/s|
|HSPA (3.5G)||7007139800000000000♠13.98 Mbit/s||7007136480000000000♠1706 kB/s||7006576000000000000♠5.760 Mbit/s||7006576000000000000♠720 kB/s|
|4×EV-DO Enhancements (2×2 MIMO)||7007344000000000000♠34.4 Mbit/s||7007344000000000000♠4.3 MB/s||7007124000000000000♠12.4 Mbit/s||7007124000000000000♠1.55 MB/s|
|HSPA+ (2×2 MIMO)||7007420000000000000♠42 Mbit/s||7007420000000000000♠5.25 MB/s||7007115000000000000♠11.5 Mbit/s||7007114960000000000♠1.437 MB/s|
|15×EV-DO rev. B||7007735000000000000♠73.5 Mbit/s||7007736000000000000♠9.2 MB/s||7007270000000000000♠27 Mbit/s||7007270000000000000♠3.375 MB/s|
|UMB (2×2 MIMO)||7008140000000000000♠140 Mbit/s||7008140000000000000♠17.5 MB/s||7007340000000000000♠34 Mbit/s||7007340000000000000♠4.250 MB/s|
|LTE (2×2 MIMO)||7008173000000000000♠173 Mbit/s||7008173000000000000♠21.625 MB/s||7007580000000000000♠58 Mbit/s||7007580000000000000♠7.25 MB/s||2004|
|UMB (4×4 MIMO)||7008280000000000000♠280 Mbit/s||7008280000000000000♠35 MB/s||7007680000000000000♠68 Mbit/s||7007680000000000000♠8.5 MB/s|
|EV-DO rev. C||7008280000000000000♠280 Mbit/s||7008280000000000000♠35 MB/s||7007750000000000000♠75 Mbit/s||7007720000000000000♠9 MB/s|
|LTE (4×4 MIMO)||7008326000000000000♠326 Mbit/s||7008326000000000000♠40.750 MB/s||7007860000000000000♠86 Mbit/s||7007860000000000000♠10.750 MB/s|
Wide area networks
|DS0||7004640000000000000♠0.064 Mbit/s||7004640000000000000♠0.008 MB/s|
|G.lite (a.k.a. ADSL Lite)||7006153600000000000♠1.536/0.512 Mbit/s||7006153600000000000♠0.192/0.064 MB/s|
|DS1 / T1 (and ISDN Primary Rate Interface)||7006154400000000000♠1.544 Mbit/s||7006153600000000000♠0.192 MB/s|
|E1 (and ISDN Primary Rate Interface)||7006204800000000000♠2.048 Mbit/s||7006204800000000000♠0.256 MB/s|
|G.SHDSL||7006230400000000000♠2.304 Mbit/s||7006230400000000000♠0.288 MB/s|
|LR-VDSL2 (4 to 5 km [long-]range) (symmetry optional)||7006400000000000000♠4 Mbit/s||7006409600000000000♠0.512 MB/s|
|SDSL||7006232000000000000♠2.32 Mbit/s||7006232000000000000♠0.29 MB/s|
|T2||7006631200000000000♠6.312 Mbit/s||7006631200000000000♠0.789 MB/s|
|ADSL||7006800000000000000♠8.0/1.024 Mbit/s||7006800000000000000♠1.0/0.128 MB/s|
|E2||7006844800000000000♠8.448 Mbit/s||7006844800000000000♠1.056 MB/s|
|ADSL2||7007120000000000000♠12/3.5 Mbit/s||7007120000000000000♠1.5/0.448 MB/s|
|Satellite Internet||7007160000000000000♠16/1 Mbit/s||7007160000000000000♠2.0/0.128 MB/s|
|ADSL2+||7007240000000000000♠24/3.5 Mbit/s||7007240000000000000♠3.0/0.448 MB/s|
|E3||7007343680000000000♠34.368 Mbit/s||7007343680000000000♠4.296 MB/s|
|DOCSIS 1.0 (cable modem)||7007380000000000000♠38/9 Mbit/s||7007380000000000000♠4.75/1.125 MB/s|
|DOCSIS 2.0 (cable modem)||7007380000000000000♠38/27 Mbit/s||7007380000000000000♠4.75/3.38 MB/s|
|DS3 / T3 ('45 Meg')||7007447360000000000♠44.736 Mbit/s||7007447400000000000♠5.5925 MB/s|
|STS-1 / OC-1 / STM-0||7007518400000000000♠51.84 Mbit/s||7007518400000000000♠6.48 MB/s|
|VDSL (symmetry optional)||7008100000000000000♠100 Mbit/s||7008100000000000000♠12.5 MB/s|
|OC-3 / STM-1||7008155520000000000♠155.52 Mbit/s||7008155520000000000♠19.44 MB/s|
|VDSL2 (symmetry optional)||7008250000000000000♠250 Mbit/s||7008250000000000000♠31.25 MB/s|
|T4||7008274176000000000♠274.176 Mbit/s||7008274176000000000♠34.272 MB/s|
|T5||7008400352000000000♠400.352 Mbit/s||7008400352000000000♠50.044 MB/s|
|OC-9||7008466560000000000♠466.56 Mbit/s||7008466560000000000♠58.32 MB/s|
|OC-12 / STM-4||7008622080000000000♠622.08 Mbit/s||7008622080000000000♠77.76 MB/s|
|OC-18||7008933120000000000♠933.12 Mbit/s||7008933120000000000♠116.64 MB/s|
|DOCSIS 3.0 (cable modem)||7009121600000000000♠1216/216 Mbit/s||7009121600000000000♠152/27 MB/s|
|OC-24||7009124400000000000♠1.244 Gbit/s||7009124400000000000♠155.5 MB/s|
|OC-36||7009190000000000000♠1.900 Gbit/s||7009190000000000000♠237.5 MB/s|
|OC-48 / STM-16||7009248800000000000♠2.488 Gbit/s||7009248832000000000♠311.04 MB/s|
|OC-96||7009497600000000000♠4.976 Gbit/s||7009497664000000000♠622.08 MB/s|
|OC-192 / STM-64||7009995300000000000♠9.953 Gbit/s||7009995300000000000♠1.244125 GB/s|
|10 Gigabit Ethernet WAN PHY||7009995300000000000♠9.953 Gbit/s||7009995300000000000♠1.244125 GB/s|
|DOCSIS 3.1 (cable modem)||7010100000000000000♠10/2 Gbit/s||7010100000000000000♠1.25/0.25 GB/s|
|DOCSIS 3.1 Full Duplex (cable modem)||7010100000000000000♠10/10 Gbit/s||7010100000000000000♠1.25/1.25 GB/s|
|OC-256||7010132710000000000♠13.271 Gbit/s||7010132720000000000♠1.659 GB/s|
|OC-768 / STM-256||7010398130000000000♠39.813 Gbit/s||7010398080000000000♠4.976 GB/s|
|OC-1536 / STM-512||7010796260000000000♠79.626 Gbit/s||7010796240000000000♠9.953 GB/s|
|OC-3072 / STM-1024||7011159252000000000♠159.252 Gbit/s||7011159256000000000♠19.907 GB/s|
Local area networks
|LocalTalk||7005230000000000000♠230 kbit/s||7005230400000000000♠28.8 kB/s||1988|
|Econet||7005800000000000000♠800 kbit/s||7005800000000000000♠100 kB/s||1981|
|Omninet||7006100000000000000♠1 Mbit/s||7006100000000000000♠125 kB/s|
|IBM PC Network||7006200000000000000♠2 Mbit/s||7006200000000000000♠250 kB/s||1985|
|ARCNET (Standard)||7006250000000000000♠2.5 Mbit/s||7006250000000000000♠312.5 kB/s||1977|
|Chaosnet (Original)||7006400000000000000♠4 Mbit/s||7006300000000000000♠3.0 Mbit/s||1971|
|Token Ring (Original)||7006400000000000000♠4 Mbit/s||7006400000000000000♠500 kB/s||1985|
|Ethernet (10BASE-X)||7007100000000000000♠10 Mbit/s||7007100000000000000♠1.25 MB/s||1980 (1985 IEEE Standard)|
|Token Ring (Later)||7007160000000000000♠16 Mbit/s||7007160000000000000♠2 MB/s||1989|
|ARCnet Plus||7007200000000000000♠20 Mbit/s||7007200000000000000♠2.5 MB/s||1992|
|TCNS||7008100000000000000♠100 Mbit/s||7008100000000000000♠12.5 MB/s||1993?|
|100VG||7008100000000000000♠100 Mbit/s||7008100000000000000♠12.5 MB/s||1995|
|Token Ring IEEE 802.5t||7008100000000000000♠100 Mbit/s||7008100000000000000♠12.5 MB/s|
|Fast Ethernet (100BASE-X)||7008100000000000000♠100 Mbit/s||7008100000000000000♠12.5 MB/s||1995|
|FDDI||7008100000000000000♠100 Mbit/s||7008100000000000000♠12.5 MB/s|
|MoCA 1.0||7008100000000000000♠100 Mbit/s||7008100000000000000♠12.5 MB/s|
|MoCA 1.1||7008175000000000000♠175 Mbit/s||7008175000000000000♠21.875 MB/s|
|HomePlug AV||7008200000000000000♠200 Mbit/s||7008200000000000000♠25 MB/s||2005|
|FireWire (IEEE 1394) 400||7008400000000000000♠400 Mbit/s||7008400000000000000♠50 MB/s||1995|
|HIPPI||7008800000000000000♠800 Mbit/s||7008800000000000000♠100 MB/s|
|IEEE 1901||7009100000000000000♠1000 Mbit/s||7009100000000000000♠125 MB/s||2010|
|Token Ring IEEE 802.5v||7009100000000000000♠1 Gbit/s||7009100000000000000♠125 MB/s||2001|
|Gigabit Ethernet (1000BASE-X)||7009100000000000000♠1 Gbit/s||7009100000000000000♠125 MB/s||1998|
|Reflective memory or RFM2 (1.25 µs latency)||7009200000000000000♠2 Gbit/s||7009188000000000000♠235 MB/s||1970|
|Myrinet 2000||7009200000000000000♠2 Gbit/s||7009200000000000000♠250 MB/s|
|Infiniband SDR 1×||7009200000000000000♠2 Gbit/s||7009200000000000000♠250 MB/s||2001|
|RapidIO Gen1 1×||7009250000000000000♠2.5 Gbit/s||7009250000000000000♠312.5 MB/s||2000|
|Quadrics QsNetI||7009360000000000000♠3.6 Gbit/s||7009360000000000000♠450 MB/s|
|Infiniband DDR 1×||7009400000000000000♠4 Gbit/s||7009400000000000000♠500 MB/s||2005|
|RapidIO Gen2 1×||7009500000000000000♠5 Gbit/s|