Dissertation Serment De Jeu De Paume Museum

Afin de résoudre la grave crise financière que traverse son gouvernement, Louis XVI convoque au printemps 1789 les États Généraux, c’est-à-dire la réunion des trois ordres : clergé, noblesse et tiers état. Les députés du tiers état espèrent des réformes. Rapidement déçus, ils refusent de se soumettre au pouvoir royal.

Refusant de siéger par ordre, ils s’allient avec quelques députés du clergé et de la noblesse et se constituent solennellement en Assemblée nationale le 17 juin 1789. Le roi tente de s’opposer à cette Assemblée en faisant fermer la salle des Menus-Plaisirs à Versailles, où elle se réunissait. Trouvant porte close le 20 juin, les députés se rendent dans une salle proche où l’on pratiquait le jeu de paume et y prêtent le fameux Serment du Jeu de paume :

« Nous jurons de ne jamais nous séparer et de nous réunir partout où les circonstances l’exigeraient, jusqu’à ce que la Constitution du royaume fût établie et affermie par des fondements solides.

ANECDOTE

Événement fondateur de la démocratie française, le Serment du Jeu de paume est à l’origine de la séparation des pouvoirs et de la souveraineté nationale. En est issue l’Assemblée nationale constituante qui vote, en août 1789, l’abolition de la féodalité et la Déclaration des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen.

du gymnase royal au musée de la révolution française

Construite en 1686, cette salle de jeu est une propriété privée. La famille royale, et le roi surtout, s’y rendait afin de pratiquer la paume, ancêtre du tennis. Le 20 juin 1789, les députés du tiers état y prêtent le fameux Serment du Jeu de paume. Le 7 Brumaire de l’an II (28 octobre 1793), un décret de la Convention acquiert cette salle pour la Nation. Elle connaît dès lors des fortunes diverses.

Atelier du peintre Antoine-Jean Gros en 1804, hospice militaire en 1815, atelier du peintre Horace Vernet sous le règne de Louis-Philippe, l’ancien gymnase est entièrement restauré sous la IIIe République. Les travaux du bâtiment et le décor sont placés sous la direction de l’architecte Edmond Guillaume (1826-1894). Ils débutent en 1879.

Edmond Guillaume érige un édicule dorique, soutenu par deux colonnes de marbre, provenant du bosquet des Dômes dans les jardins de Versailles, et surmonté d’un coq en bronze, réalisé par Auguste Cain. Il abrite la statue en marbre de Jean-Sylvain Bailly , réalisée par René de Saint-Marceaux. Autour de la salle, dans une frise de feuillages, sont peints les noms des signataires du serment. Vingt bustes commandés à des sculpteurs contemporains évoquent les hommes les plus éminents de l’Assemblée.

La toile monumentale du Serment du Jeu de paume

Sur le pignon intérieur nord, une toile de Luc-Olivier Merson, datée de 1883, reprend le dessin du Serment du Jeu de paume exécuté par Jacques-Louis David en 1791 et aujourd’hui conservé au château de Versailles. Réalisée en quelques mois seulement par le peintre, et aidé de quatre assistants, cette toile monumentale, de dix mètres sur six, est une véritable prouesse technique.

Le 20 juin 1883, le musée de la Révolution française est inauguré dans la salle du Serment du Jeu de paume.

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